Students learn about themselves and others in relation to their school, families, community, country, and the world.
Students demonstrate thinking that reflects an understanding of civic values, explore the impact of consequences on themselves and their community, and discover similarities and differences amongst people, places, and events that have occurred at points of time. Students are engaged in collaborating and conversing with each other to share ideas and gain multiple perspectives. Students become global citizens by exploring their own place in the world, their values and their responsibilities to people, to the environment and to the world.
In Spring Lake Park Schools, Enduring Understandings are...
Statements that clearly articulate the big ideas that promote long term understanding of the discipline or subject area that have lasting value beyond the classroom. These are the important understandings that we want students to retain after they may have forgotten the details (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
K-12 Social Studies Enduring Understandings
- Cultures vary and influence the way people perceive the world.
- Human beings seek to understand their historical roots and to locate themselves in time.
- People’s lives are influenced by human- environmental interactions.
- Personal identity is shaped by one’s culture, by groups, and by institutional influences.
- Individuals and groups can influence institutional change.
- Civic competence is developed by understanding structures of power and authority.
- Scarcity requires humans to make decisions about wants and needs.
- Life as we know it would be impossible without technology and the science that supports it.
- We live in an interconnected, interdependent, and diverse world.
- Civic participation is a critical component of democracy.
In Spring Lake Park Schools, Essential Questions...
Focus our attention on what is important. They foster inquiry, understanding, and transfer of learning. They occur naturally and should be asked over and over (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
K-12 Social Studies Essential Questions Include:
- What did happen in history?
- Are some cultures superior to others?
- Does the past influence the future?
- Is history a socially constructed endeavor?
- Where is the best place to live and how should you decide?
- Who are you?
- How can one person make a difference?
- Who has power and how do they keep it?
- What is wealth?
- How is life better or worse with technology? Do we need technology?
- Is it possible for a society to be self-reliant today?
- What is the impact of diversity in the world?
- Is conflict an inevitable outgrowth of diversity
- What is an effective citizen? Does citizenship matter?
In Spring Lake Park Schools, Learning Targets...
Specify, in measurable terms, what all students should know and be able to do to achieve desired understandings and answer essential questions (Brown, 2004). These will be identified for each subject within each grade level.
- First Grade
- Second Grade
- Third Grade
- Fourth Grade
- Fifth Grade
- Sixth Grade
- Seventh Grade
- Eighth Grade
- Ninth Grade
- 10th Grade
- 11th Grade
- 12th Grade
Citizenship and Government
- Demonstrate civic skills in a classroom that reflect an understanding of civic values. (0.1.1.1.1)
- Describe symbols, songs and traditions that identify our nation and state. (0.1.2.2.1)
- Identify examples of rules in the school community and explain why they exist; describe incentives for following rules and consequences for breaking rules. (0.1.4.7.1)
- Distinguish between individual needs (conditions necessary to survive) and individual wants (conditions desired to be happy). (0.2.1.1.1)
- Identify goods and services that could satisfy a specific need or want. (0.2.1.1.2)
- Distinguish between goods (objects that can be seen or touched) and services (actions or activities). (0.2.4.5.1)
- Describe spatial information depicted in simple drawings and pictures. (0.3.1.1.1)
- Describe a map and a globe as a representation of a space. (0.3.1.1.2)
- Identify the physical and human characteristics of places, including real and imagined places. (0.3.2.3.1)
- Use a variety of words to reference time in the past, present and future; identify the beginning, middle and end of historical stories. (0.4.1.1.1)
- Describe ways people learn about the past. (0.4.1.2.1)
- Compare and contrast traditions in a family with those of other families, including those from diverse backgrounds. (0.4.2.4.1)
Citizenship and Government
- Demonstrate ways good citizens participate in the civic life of their community; explain why participation is important. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain why and when the Pledge of Allegiance is recited; provide examples of basic flag etiquette and other demonstrations of patriotism. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Identify the president of the United States; explain that voting determines who will be president. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Identify characteristics of effective rules; participate in a process to establish rules. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Describe some costs and benefits of alternative choices made by families. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Define scarcity as not having enough of something to satisfy everyone's wants; give examples. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Explain that people trade (voluntarily) when they each expect to be better off after doing so. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Create sketch maps to illustrate spatial information about familiar places;
- Describe spatial information found on maps. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Use relative location words and absolute location words to identify the location of a specific place; explain why or when it is important to use absolute versus relative location. (126.96.36.199.2)
- Compare physical and human characteristics of a local place and a place far away on a globe or map (such as a place in an equatorial or polar region). (188.8.131.52.1)
- Create a timeline that identifies at least three events from one's own life. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Ask basic historical questions about a past event in one's family, school or local community. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe how people lived at a particular time in the past based on information found in historical records and artifacts. (18.104.22.168.2)
- Compare and contrast family life from earlier times and today. (22.214.171.124.1)
Citizenship and Government
- Demonstrate voting skills, identify rules that keep a voting process fair, and explain why voting is important. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Explain the importance of constitutions. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Compare and contrast student rules, rights and responsibilities at school with their rules, rights and responsibilities at home; explain the importance of obeying rules. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Given a goal and several alternative choices to reach that goal, select the best choice and explain why. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe the trade-offs of a decision; describe the opportunity cost of a choice as the next best alternative which was not chosen. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Classify materials that come from nature as natural resources (or raw materials); tools, equipment and factories as capital resources; and workers as human resources. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Identify money as any generally accepted item used in making exchanges. (126.96.36.199.2)
- Create sketch maps to illustrate detailed spatial information about settings from stories; describe the spatial information found on the maps. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Locate key features on a map or globe; use cardinal directions to describe the relationship between two or more features. (184.108.40.206.2)
- Use maps, photos or other geographic tools to identify and locate major landmarks or major physical features of the United States. (220.127.116.11.3)
- Use maps, photos, or other geographic tools to answer basic questions about where people are located. (18.104.22.168.4)
- Identify causes and consequences of human impact on the environment and ways that the environment influences people. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Use and create calendars to identify days, weeks, months, years and seasons;
- Use and create timelines to chronicle personal, school, community or world events. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Use historical records and artifacts to describe how people's lives have changed over time. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Compare and contrast daily life for Minnesota Dakota or Anishinaabe peoples in different times, including before European contact and today. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Describe how the culture of a community reflects the history, daily life or beliefs of its people. (220.127.116.11.2)
Citizenship and Government
- Identify ways people make a difference in the civic life of their communities, state, nation or world by working as individuals or groups to address a specific problem or need. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain the importance of civic discourse (including speaking, listening, voting and respecting diverse viewpoints) and the principles of majority rule and minority rights.(22.214.171.124.1)
- Describe the importance of the services provided by government; explain that they are funded through taxes and fees. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Identify the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) and their primary functions. (188.8.131.52.2)
Economics- consider a "market" unit to teach economic targets
- Identify possible short- and long-term consequences (costs and benefits) of different choices. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Describe income as the money earned from selling resources and expenditures as the money used to buy goods and services. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Explain that producing any good or service requires resources; describe the resources needed to produce a specific good or service; explain why it is not possible to produce an unlimited amount of a good or service. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain that consumers have two roles—as sellers of resources and buyers of goods and services; explain that producers have two roles—as sellers of goods and services and buyers of resources. (22.214.171.124.2)
- Use maps and concepts of location (relative location words and cardinal and intermediate directions) to describe places in one’s community, the state of Minnesota, the United States or the world. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Create and interpret simple maps of places around the world, local to global; incorporate the "TODALS" map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information. (188.8.131.52.2)
- Identify landforms and patterns in population; explain why human populations are unevenly distributed around the world. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Identify physical and human features that act as boundaries or dividers; give examples of situations or reasons why people have made or used boundaries. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Reference different time periods using correct terminology, including the terms decade, century and millennium. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Create timelines of important events in three different time scales—decades, centuries and millennia. (22.214.171.124.2)
- Examine historical records, maps and artifacts to answer basic questions about times and events in history, both ancient and more recent. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Compare and contrast two different accounts of an event. (188.8.131.52.2)
- Compare and contrast various ways that different cultures have expressed concepts of time and space. (184.108.40.206.3)
- Explain how an invention of the past changed life at that time, including positive, negative and unintended outcomes. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Identify examples of individuals or groups who have had an impact on world history; explain how their actions helped shape the world around them. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain how the environment influenced the settlement of ancient peoples in three different regions of the world. (Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples: 8000 BCE—2000 BCE) (22.214.171.124.1)
- Identify methods of communication used by peoples living in ancient times in three different regions of the world. (Classical Traditions, Belief Systems and Giant Empires: 2000 BCE—600 CE) (126.96.36.199.1)
- Compare and contrast daily life for people living in ancient times in at least three different regions of the world. (Post-Classical and Medieval Civilizations and Expanding Zones of Exchange: 600 CE—1450 CE) (188.8.131.52.1)
Citizenship and Government
- Describe how people take action to influence a decision on a specific issue; explain how local, state, national or tribal governments have addressed that issue. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Describe tribal government and some of the services it provides; distinguish between United States and tribal forms of government. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Identify the major roles and responsibilities of elected and appointed leaders in the community, state and nation; name some current leaders who function in these roles and how they are selected. (18.104.22.168.2)
- Apply a reasoned decision-making process to make a choice. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Define the productivity of a resource and describe ways to increase it. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Describe a market as any place or manner in which buyers and sellers interact to make exchanges; describe prices as payments of money for items exchanged in markets. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Create and use various kinds of maps, including overlaying thematic maps, of places in the United States, and also Canada or Mexico; incorporate the “TODALS” map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Use latitude and longitude on maps and globes to locate places in the United States, and also Canada or Mexico. (220.127.116.11.2)
- Choose the most appropriate data from maps, charts, and graphs in an atlas to answer specific questions about geographic issues in the United States, and also Canada or Mexico. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Use photographs or satellite-produced images to interpret spatial information about the United States, and also Canada or Mexico. (22.214.171.124.2)
- Locate and identify the physical and human characteristics of places in the United States, and also Canada or Mexico. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Name and locate states and territories, major cities and state capitals in the United States. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Name and locate countries neighboring the United States and their major cities. (184.108.40.206.2)
- Use data to analyze and explain the changing distribution of population in the United States and Canada over the last century. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Explain how geographic factors affect population distribution and the growth of cities in the United States and Canada. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain how humans adapt to and/or modify the physical environment and how they are in turn affected by these adaptations and modifications. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Describe how the location of resources and the distribution of people and their various economic activities has created different regions in the United States and Canada. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Analyze the impact of geographic factors on the development of modern agricultural regions in Minnesota and the United States. (188.8.131.52.2)
- Use maps to compare and contrast a particular region in the United States, and also Canada or Mexico, at different points in time. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Identify and locate on a map or globe the origins of peoples in the local community and state; create a timeline of when different groups arrived; describe why and how they came. (220.127.116.11.1)
Citizenship and Government
- Simulate a historic event to show how civic engagement (voting, civil discourse about controversial issues and civic action) improves and sustains a democratic society, supports the general welfare, and protects the rights of individuals. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Identify a public problem in the school or community, analyze the issue from multiple perspectives, and create an action plan to address it. (22.214.171.124.2)
- Identify historically significant people during the period of the American Revolution; explain how their actions contributed to the development of American political culture. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Explain specific protections that the Bill of Rights provides to individuals and the importance of these 10 amendments to the ratification of the United States Constitution. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Explain the primary functions of the three branches of government and how the leaders of each branch are selected as established in the United States Constitution. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Describe how governmental power is limited through the principles of federalism, the separation of powers, and checks and balances. (220.127.116.11.2)
- Identify taxes and fees collected and services provided by governments during colonial times; compare these to the taxes and fees collected and services provided by the government today. (18.104.22.168.3)
- Explain how law limits the powers of government and the governed, protects individual rights and promotes the general welfare. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Apply a decision-making process to identify an alternative choice that could have been made for a historical event; explain the probable impact of that choice. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Describe various uses of income and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Describe the concept of profit as the motivation for entrepreneurs; calculate profit as the difference between revenue (from selling goods and services) and cost (payments for resources used). (184.108.40.206.1)
- Create and use various kinds of maps, including overlaying thematic maps, of places in the North American colonies; incorporate the “TODALS” map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Locate and identify the physical and human characteristics of places in the North American colonies. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Explain how geographic factors affected land use in the North American colonies. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Explain the construct of an era; interpret the connections between three or more events in an era depicted on a timeline or flowchart. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Pose questions about a topic in history, examine a variety of sources related to the questions, interpret findings, and use evidence to draw conclusions that address the questions. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Explain a historical event from multiple perspectives. (184.108.40.206.2)
- Analyze multiple causes and outcomes of a historical event. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe complex urban societies that existed in Mesoamerica and North America before 1500. (Before European Contact) (18.104.22.168.1)
- Identify various motivations of Europeans for exploration and settlement in Asia, Africa and the Americas from the fifteenth to early seventeenth centuries. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585- 1763) (22.214.171.124.1)
- Describe early interactions between indigenous peoples, Europeans and Africans, including the Columbian Exchange; identify the consequences of those interactions on the three groups. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585-1763) (126.96.36.199.2)
- Identify the role of Europeans and West Africans in the development of the Atlantic slave trade. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585-1763). (188.8.131.52.3)
- Compare and contrast life within the English, French and Spanish colonies in North America. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585-1763) (184.108.40.206.4)
- Describe ways that enslaved people and people in free black communities resisted slavery and transferred, developed and maintained their cultural identities. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585-1763) (220.127.116.11.5)
- Identify major conflicts between the colonies and England following the Seven Years’ War; explain how these conflicts led to the American Revolution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (18.104.22.168.1)
- Describe the development of self-governance in the British colonies and explain the influence of this tradition on the American Revolution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (22.214.171.124.2)
- Identify the major events of the American Revolution culminating in the creation of a new and independent nation. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (126.96.36.199.3)
- Compare and contrast the impact of the American Revolution on different groups within the 13 colonies that made up the new United States. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (188.8.131.52.4)
- Describe the purposes of the founding documents and explain the basic principles of democracy that were set forth in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (184.108.40.206.5)
- Describe the successes and failures of the national government under the Articles of Confederation and why it was ultimately discarded and replaced with the Constitution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800) (220.127.116.11.6)
- Describe the major issues that were debated at the Constitutional Convention. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800. (18.104.22.168.7)
- Evaluate arguments about selected issues from diverse perspectives and frames of reference, noting the strengths, weaknesses and consequences associated with the decision made on each issue. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Use graphic data to analyze information about a public issue in state or local government. (126.96.36.199.2)
- Explain why federal and state governments regulate economic activity to promote public well-being. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Create and use various kinds of maps, including overlaying thematic maps, of places in Minnesota; incorporate the “TODALSS” map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Locate, identify and describe major physical features in Minnesota; explain how physical features and the location of resources affect settlement patterns and the growth of cities in different parts of Minnesota. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe how land was used during different time periods in Minnesota history; explain how and why land use has changed over time. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Pose questions about a topic in Minnesota history, gather a variety of primary and secondary sources related to questions, analyze sources for credibility, identify possible answers, use evidence to draw conclusions, and present supported findings. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Identify the push-pull factors that bring immigrants and refugees to Minnesota; compare and contrast recent experiences with those of earlier Minnesota immigrant groups in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (The United States in a New Global Age: 1980-present) (126.96.36.199.1)
- Including, describing the response of Minnesotans to global conflicts and displaced peoples since 1945 (post-World War II United States: 1945-1989)
- Define citizenship in the United States and explain that individuals become citizens by birth or naturalization. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Describe the establishment and expansion of rights over time, including the impact of treaties (184.108.40.206.1)
- Explain the relationship among the three branches of government: making laws by the legislative branch, implementing and enforcing laws by the executive branch, and interpreting laws by the judicial branch. (220.127.116.11.1)
- Identify the purpose of United State’s Constitution; explain how the Constitution organizes government and protects rights. (18.104.22.168.3)
- Describe how laws are created; explain the differences between federal, state and local laws. (22.214.171.124.5)
- Identify the major state and local (county, city, school board, township) governmental offices; describe the primary duties associated with them. (126.96.36.199.4)
- Define federalism and describe the relationship between the powers of the federal and state governments. (188.8.131.52.2)
- Compare and contrast the basic structures, functions and ways of funding state and local governments. (184.108.40.206.7)
- Compare and contrast the Dakota and Anishinaabe nations prior to 1800 (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe European exploration, competition and trade in the upper Mississippi River region; describe varied interactions between Minnesota’s indigenous peoples and Europeans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585-1763) (18.104.22.168.1)
- Describe the movement of goods and services, resources and money through markets in a market based economy. (22.214.171.124.1)
- Address a state or local policy issue by identifying key opposing positions, determining conflicting values and beliefs, defending and justifying a position with evidence, and developing strategies to persuade others to adopt this position. (126.96.36.199.3)
- Explain the concept of sovereignty and how treaty rights are exercised by the Anishinaabe and Dakota today. (188.8.131.52.1)
- Analyze how and why the United States and the Dakota and Anishinaabe negotiated treaties; describe the consequences of treaties on the Anishinaabe, Dakota and settlers in the upper Mississippi River region. (Expansion and Reform: 1792-1861) (184.108.40.206.2)
- Describe how and why the United States claimed and settled the upper Mississippi River region in the early nineteenth century; explain the impact of steamboat transportation and settlement on the physical, social and cultural landscapes. (Expansion and Reform: 1792-1861) (6.4.418.1)
- Describe the process of how Minnesota became a territory and state; identify the key events, individuals and groups involved in the process. (Expansion and Reform: 1792-1861) (220.127.116.11.3)
- Create a timeline of the key events of the American Civil War; describe the war-time experiences of Minnesota soldiers and civilians. (Civil War and Reconstruction: 1850-1877) (18.104.22.168.2)
- Explain the causes of the Civil War; describe how the debate over slavery and abolition played out in Minnesota. (Civil War and Reconstruction) (22.214.171.124.1)
- Explain the impact of the Civil War on the lives of Minnesotans. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Explain reasons for the United States-Dakota War of 1862; compare and contrast the perspectives of settlers and Dakota people before, during and after the war. (Civil War and Reconstruction: 1850-1877) (6.4.419.3)
- Describe Minnesota and federal American Indian policy and its impact on Anishinaabe and Dakota people, especially in the area of land ownership. (Development of an industrial United States: 1870-1920) (188.8.131.52.4)
- Analyze how the rise of big business, the growth of industry, the use of natural resources, and technological innovation influenced Minnesota's economy from 1860 to 1920. (Development of an Industrial United States: 1870-1920) (184.108.40.206.1)
- Analyze the causes and impact of migration and immigration on Minnesota society during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (Development of an Industrial United States: 1870- 1920) (220.127.116.11.2)
- Create a budget based on a given monthly income, real-world expenses, and personal preferences, including enough savings to meet an identified future savings goal. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Describe the effects of reform movements on the political and social culture of Minnesota in the early twentieth century. (Development of an Industrial United States: 1870-1920) (22.214.171.124.3)
- Describe various types of income including wage, rent, interest and profit; explain the role that the development of human capital plays in determining one's income. (126.96.36.199.1)
- Describe the political and social culture of Minnesota during World War I and how it affected Minnesotans. (Development of an Industrial United States: 1870- 1920) (188.8.131.52.5)
- Explain why federal and state governments regulate economic activity to promote public well being. (184.108.40.206.1)
- Describe how the major cultural and social transformations of the 1920s changed the lifestyle of Minnesotans. (The Great Depression and World War II: 1920-1945) (220.127.116.11.1)
- Describe political and social impact of the Great Depression and New Deal in Minnesota, including the increased conflict between big business and organized labor. (The Great Depression and World War II: 1920-1945) (18.104.22.168.2)
- Identify contributions of Minnesota and its people to World War II; describe the impact of the war on the home front and Minnesota society after the war. (The Great Depression and World War II: 1920-1945) (22.214.171.124.4)
- Give examples of economic changes in Minnesota during the Cold War era; describe the impact of these changes on Minnesota’s people. (Post-World War II United States: 1945-1989)(126.96.36.199.4)
- Describe civil rights and conservation movements in post-World War II Minnesota including the role of Minnesota Leaders. (1945-1989) (188.8.131.52.2)
- Identify the major Minnesota political figures, ideas and industries that have shaped or continue to shape Minnesota and the United States today. (The United States in a New Global Age: 1980-present) (184.108.40.206.2)
- Describe the response of Minnesotans to global conflicts and displaced peoples since 1945. (post World War II United states: 1945-1989) (220.127.116.11.3)
Citizenship and Government
Geography- Trimester 1 (Physical and Environmental Features)
Geography- Trimester 1 (human Population and Cultural Characteristics
History- Trimester 1
Government and Citizenship- Trimester 2
History- Trimester 2
Economics- Trimester 2
Geography- Trimester 3
History- Trimester 3 (Theme: A Changing Contemporary World)
Citizenship and Government
Government and Citizenship
- Pose questions about topics in history; suggest possible answers and write a thesis; locate and organize primary and secondary sources; analyze them for credibility and bias; corroborate information across the sources; use sources to support or refute the thesis; and present supported findings. (18.104.22.168.1)
- Evaluate alternative interpretations of historical events; use historical evidence to support or refute those interpretations. (22.214.171.124.2)
- Describe the development, characteristics, and decline of civilizations in Africa, eastern Asia, and southern Asia; describe their interactions. (Classical Traditions, Belief Systems, and Giant Empires: 2000 BCE—600 CE) (126.96.36.199.1)
- Analyze the emergence, development, and impact of religions and philosophies of this era, including Hinduism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Judaism and Christianity. (Classical Traditions, Belief Systems, and Giant Empires: 2000 BCE—600 CE) (188.8.131.52.3)
- Describe the rise and significance of Islam in Southwest Asia and its expansion and institutionalization into other regions. (Post- Classical and Medieval Civilizations and Expanding Zones of Exchange: 600—1450) (184.108.40.206.1)
- Compare and contrast the cultures of China (Yuan/Mongol and Ming) and Japan (Heian and early Shogunates), including the consolidation of belief systems. (Post-Classical and Medieval Civilizations and Expanding Zones of Exchange: 600—1450) (220.127.116.11.3)
- Compare and contrast the cultures in eastern and western Europe, including the role of Christianity, feudalism and the impact of diseases and climate change. (Post-Classical and Medieval Civilizations and Expanding Zones of Exchange: 600-1450) (18.104.22.168.5)
- Describe the intensified exchanges of scientific, artistic and historical knowledge among Europe, Africa and Southwest Asia; evaluate the impact on Christian and Islamic societies. (Post-Classical and Medieval Civilizations and Expanding Zones of Exchange: 600-1450) (22.214.171.124.7)
- Describe the Reformation and Counter- Reformation; analyze their impact throughout the Atlantic world. (Emergence of the First Global Age: 1450—1750) (126.96.36.199)
- Explain the social, political and economic changes in Europe that led to trans-oceanic exploration and colonization. (Emergence of the First Global Age: 1450—1750) (188.8.131.52.2)
- Describe the interactions and negotiations between Americans (Mayans, Aztecs, Incas) and European explorers, as well as the consequences. (Emergence of the First Global Age: 1450—1750) (184.108.40.206.4)
- Assess the social and demographic impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe, the Americas and Africa. (Emergence of the First Global Age: 1450— 1750) (220.127.116.11.5)
- Identify the major intellectual and scientific developments of seventeenth and eighteenth- century Europe; describe the regional and global influences on the European Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, and assess their impact on global society. (Emergence of the First Global Age: 1450—1750) (18.104.22.168.9)
- Describe the causes and the regional and global impact of the Industrial Revolution. (The Age of Revolutions: 1750—1922) (22.214.171.124.1)
- Explain the causes and global consequences of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Era. (The Age of Revolutions: 1750—1922) (126.96.36.199.2)
- Describe the independence movements and rebellions in the Caribbean and Central and South America; analyze the social, political and economic causes and consequences of these events. (The Age of Revolutions: 1750—1922) (188.8.131.52.3)
- Describe European imperialism; explain its effects on interactions with colonized peoples in Africa and Asia. (The Age of Revolutions: 1750—1922) (184.108.40.206.7)
- Compare and contrast the approaches of China and Japan to Western influence. (The Age of Revolutions: 1750—1922) (220.127.116.11.8)
- Describe the social, political and economic causes and consequences of World War I. (A Half Century of Crisis and Achievement: 1900—1950) (18.104.22.168.1)
- Describe the rise and effects of communism and socialism in Europe and Asia, including the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) in Russia and the Chinese Revolution (1949). (A Half Century of Crisis and Achievement: 1900—1950) (22.214.171.124.2)
- Trace the political and economic changes in China from the Communist Revolution until recent times. (The World After World War II: 1950—1989) (126.96.36.199.1)
- Evaluate the degree to which individuals and groups have shaped the development of various post-colonial governments. (The World After World War II: 1950—1989) (188.8.131.52.2)
- Analyze the social, political and economic impact of globalization and technological advancement, including the effects on the economies of developing countries and the impact on political power and political boundaries. (The New Global Era: 1989 to Present) (184.108.40.206.2)
- Analyze the consequences of the transatlantic Columbian Exchange of peoples, animals, plants and pathogens on North American societies and ecosystems. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585—1763) (220.127.116.11.1)
- Explain the origin and growth of the Atlantic slave trade; describe its demographic, economic, and political impact on western Africa, Europe, and the Americas (North America, Caribbean, Central and South America), including the impact on enslaved Africans. (Colonization and Settlement: 1585— 1763) (18.104.22.168.4)
- Identify the sources of these principles and ideals and their impact on subsequent revolutions in Europe, the Caribbean, and Latin America. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754—1800) (22.214.171.124.2)
Citizenship and Government