Science

Science education focuses on fostering deep content knowledge through active intellectual engagement and emulating disciplinary practices and thinking. Science education offers a rich context for developing critical thinking, problem solving, and information literacy through instruction that addresses the nature of science and promotes use of science practices.

We believe each student is capable of engaging deeply in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Science learning involves students developing a complete, accurate, and working understanding of the nature of science. Students learn through a variety of opportunities for students to investigate and build scientific explanations, such as laboratory experiences. Close attention is paid to students’ ability to see and articulate relationships between science topics and real-world issues and concerns. Students can identify variables, formulate a model describing a relationship between the variables, interpret results and validate and report conclusions and the reasoning behind them.

Grade-Level Science Learning

Enduring Understandings

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In Spring Lake Park Schools, enduring understandings are...

Statements that clearly articulate the big ideas that promote long term understanding of the discipline or subject area that have lasting value beyond the classroom. These are the important understandings that we want students to retain after they may have forgotten the details (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).

 

Essential Questions

 

 

In Spring Lake Park Schools, essential questions...

Focus our attention on what is important. They foster inquiry, understanding, and transfer of learning. They occur naturally and should be asked over and over (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).

K-12 Science Essential Questions Include:

  • How do scientists gather, classify, sequence, and interpret information and data?
  • What are the technologies and tools scientists use to gather data and how are they utilized?
  • What is inquiry and why do we use it?
  • What are the components of a well-designed experiment?
  • What is the difference between empirical evidence and a claim/theory?
  • How have new technologies and experiences affected scientific knowledge?
  • How does scientific knowledge grow and change over time?
  • What kinds of mechanisms (tools, system/cycle, structure, instrument) best explain natural phenomena?          
  • How do we know things?
  • Does knowing lead to a greater understanding?
  • What makes scientific knowledge differ from other types of knowledge?
  • Why are patterns useful and what do they tell us?
  • How can one predict the future?
  • Who practices science?
  • What are the qualities of a scientist?
  • What motivates humans to pursue science?
  • Why do things happen?
  • How can scientists improve or diminish human conditions?
  • Are technological changes always good for society? Why or why not?
  • How does the scientific understanding of one generation both enhance and limit the range of possibilities open to the next generation?

 

K-12 Learning Targets

 

In Spring Lake Park Schools, learning targets...

Specify, in measurable terms, what all students should know and be able to do to achieve desired understandings and answer essential questions (Brown, 2004). These will be identified for each subject within each grade level.

 

Grade-specific Science Learning Targets

Kindergarten

  • Use observations to develop an accurate description of a natural phenomenon and compare one’s observations and descriptions with those of others. 0.1.1.2.1
    • I can draw/write/tell to describe what I see. (Tri 1 & 3)
    • I can draw/write/tell what is the same and different between my observations and a partner’s.  (Tri 1 & 3)
  • Describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others.
  •  Sort objects into two groups: those that are found in nature and those that are human made.  For example: Cars, pencils, trees, rocks. 0.1.2.1.1
    • I can compare and contrast items that are human made and those that are found in nature. (Tri 1, 2, 3)
  • In addition to non-living and living, students can tell items that are found in nature and those that are human-made.
  • Students can identify the change that happens to make them human made from nature made.
  • Things change in some ways and stay the same in some ways in the process of going from nature-made to human-made.
  • Things can change in different ways, such as in size, weight, color, and movement. 
  • Sort objects in terms of color, size, shape, and texture, and communicate reasoning for the sorting system.0.2.1.1.1
    • I can sort objects into groups based on their qualities and explain why. (Tri 1, 2, 3)
  • Monitor daily and seasonal changes in weather and summarize the changes.  For example: Recording cloudiness, rain, snow and temperature.  0.3.2.2.1
    • I can identify the four seasons and describe the attributes of each. (Tri 1, 3)
    • I can collect and record data about the weather and summarize information related to the data. (Tri 1, 3)
    • I can compare the weather between different months and seasons. (Tri 1, 3)
  • Identify the sun as a source of heat and light. For example: Record the time of day when the sun shines into different locations of the school and note patterns. 0.3.2.2.2
    • I can identify the sun as a source of heat and light. (Tri 1, 3)
  • Observe and compare plants and animals.  0.4.1.1.1
    • I can use my 5 senses to gather information and to describe my understandings/   observations about plants and animals. (Tri 3)
  • Identify the external parts of a variety of plants and animals including humans.  For example: Heads, legs, eyes and ears on humans and animals, flowers, stems and roots on many plants. 0.4.1.1.2
    • I can label parts of plants and animals. (Tri 3)
  • Differentiate between living and nonliving things.  For example: Sort organisms and objects (or pictures of these) into groups of those that grow, and reproduce, and need air, food, and water; and those that don't.0.4.1.1.3
    • I can sort living and nonliving things. (Tri 3)
  • Observe a natural system or its model, and identify living and nonliving components in that system.  For example: A wetland, prairie, garden or aquarium. 0.4.2.1.1
    • I can identify living and nonliving objects in a natural setting. (Tri 3)

First Grade

  • 1.1.1.1.1 - When asked "How do You Know,” students support their answer with observations. For example: Use observations to tell why a squirrel is a living thing.
    • I can show evidence to support my findings.
  • 1.1.1.1.2 - Recognize that describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others.
    • I can describe my observations clearly and compare with a partner.  (draw and label) 
  • 1.1.3.1.1 - Observe that many living and nonliving things are made of parts and that if a part is missing or broken, they may not function properly.
    • I can explain how parts need to work together to help living and nonliving things function properly.
  • 1.1.3.2.1 - Recognize that tools are used by people, including scientists and engineers, to gather information and solve problems. For example: Magnifier, snowplow, calculator.
    • I can use appropriate scientific tools to solve problems and investigate the world around me.
  • 1.3.1.3.1 - Group or classify rocks in terms of color, shape and size.
    • I can sort rocks according to color, shape and size.
  • 1.3.1.3.2 - Describe similarities and differences between soil and rocks. For example: Use screens to separate components of soil and observe the samples using a magnifier.
    • I can compare and contrast soil and rocks through the use of a Venn diagram.
  • 1.3.1.3.3 - Identify and describe large and small objects made of Earth materials.  
    • I can identify objects in my environment that are made of Earth materials.
  • 1.4.1.1.1 - Describe and sort animals into groups in many ways, according to their physical characteristics and behaviors.
    • I can categorize animals in many different ways.
  • 1.4.2.1.1 - Recognize that animals need space, water, food, shelter and air. 
    • ​​​​​​​I can recognize an animal’s needs by caring for it.
  • 1.4.2.1.2 - Describe ways in which an animal's habitat provides for its basic needs. For example: Compare students' houses with animal habitats.
    • I can create an animal and design a habitat that provides its basic needs.
  • 1.4.3.1.1 - Demonstrate an understanding that animals pass through life cycles that include a beginning, development into adults, reproduction and eventually death. For example: Use live organisms or pictures to observe the changes that occur during the life cycle of butterflies, meal worms or frogs.
    • I can draw pictures to show the different stages in an animal’s life.
  • 1.4.3.1.2 - Recognize that animals pass through the same life cycle stages as their parents.
    • I can recognize that parents and their offspring experience the same life cycle changes.

Second Grade

  • 2.1.1.2.1 - Raise questions about the natural world and seek answers by making careful observations, noting what happens when you interact with an object, and sharing the answers with others. I can write an I wonder question.
    • I can record my observations and share my results with another person.
  • 2.1.2.2.1 - Identify a need or problem and construct an object that helps to meet the need or solve the problem. For example: Design and build a tool to show wind direction. Another example: Design a kite and identify the materials to use.
    • I can identify a need or problem and design an object to help solve the problem.
  • 2.1.2.2.2 - Describe why some materials are better than others for making a particular object and how materials that are better in some ways may be worse in other ways. For example: Objects made of plastic or glass.
    • I can create a graphic organizer that helps identify  the benefits and deficits of a material.
  • 2.1.2.2.3 - Explain how engineered or designed items from everyday life benefit people.
    • I can evaluate how an engineered or designed item benefits humans.
  • 2.2.1.1.1 - Describe objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, strength and the types of materials in the object.
    • I can classify and sort objects in a variety of ways, including color, shape, size, texture, weight, or types of materials used in the object.
  • 2.2.1.2.1 - Observe, record, and recognize that water can be a solid or a liquid and can change from one state to another.
    • I can describe in writing the three states of matter.
  • 2.2.2.1.1 - Describe an object's change in position relative to other objects or a background. For example: Forward, backward, going up, going down.
    • I can identify and correctly use the terms used to describe an object’s change in position.
  • 2.2.2.1.2 - Demonstrate that objects move in a variety of ways, including a straight line, a curve, a circle, back and forth, and at different speeds. For example: Spinning toy and rocking toy. Another example: Construct objects that will move in a straight line or a curve such as a marble or toy car on a track.
    • I can identify and correctly use the terms used to describe how an object moves.
  • 2.2.2.2.1 - Describe how push and pull forces can make objects move. For example: Push and pull objects on smooth and rough surfaces.
    • I can collect and share data to show how push and pull forces can make objects move.
    • I can design an object to demonstrate how push and pull forces can make objects move.
  • 2.2.2.2.2 - Describe how things near Earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up.
    • I can create an object that slows the rate or completely prevents an object from falling to the ground.
  • 2.3.2.2.1 - Measure, record and describe weather conditions using common tools. For example: Temperature, precipitation, sunrise/sunset, and wind speed/direction.
    • I can use tools to measure, record and describe weather conditions throughout the school year.
  • 2.4.1.1.1 - Describe and sort plants into groups in many ways, according to their physical characteristics and behaviors.
    • I can write about the physical characteristics and behaviors of plants.
    • I can compare and contrast different types of plants.
  • 2.4.2.1.1. - Recognize that plants need space, water, nutrients and air, and that they fulfill these needs in different ways.
    • I can conduct an experiment to demonstrate how plants fulfill their essential needs in different ways.
  • 2.4.3.1.1 - Describe the characteristics of plants at different stages of their life cycles. For example : Use live organisms or pictures to observe the changes that occur during the life cycle of bean plants or marigolds.
    • I can create a presentation that describes the characteristics of plants at different stages of their life cycles.

Third Grade

  • 3.1.1.1.1 - Provide evidence to support claims, other than saying “Everyone knows that” or “I just know”, and questions such reasons when given by others. 
    • I can provide evidence to support my thinking.
  • 3.1.1.2.1 - Generate questions that can be answered when scientific knowledge is combined with knowledge gained from one's own observations or investigations. For example: Investigate the sounds produced by striking various objects.
    • I can generate scientific questions based on my observations and investigations.
  • 3.1.1.2.2 - Recognize that when a science investigation is done the way it was done before, even in a different place, a similar result is expected.
    • I can identify that an experiment, done under the same conditions, will have the same results.
  • 3.1.1.2.3 - Maintain a record of observations, procedures and explanations, being careful to distinguish between actual observations and ideas about what was observed. For example: Make a chart comparing observations about the structures of plants and animals.
    • I can record and explain observations and procedures.
  • 3.1.1.2.4 - Construct reasonable explanations based on evidence collected from observations or experiments.
    • I can construct explanations based on evidence.
  • 3.1.3.2.1 - Understand that everybody can use evidence to learn about the natural world, identify patterns in nature, and develop tools. For example: Ojibwe and Dakota knowledge and use of patterns in the stars to predict and plan.
    • I can explain how people of all cultures have used scientific inquiry and engineering to understand the natural world.
  • 3.1.3.2.2 - Recognize that the practice of science and/or engineering involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.
    • I can explain how men and women of all ages and backgrounds have contributed to different types of science and engineering work.
  • 3.1.3.4.1 - Use tools, including rulers, thermometers, magnifiers and simple balance, to improve observations and keep a record of the observations made.
    • I can select and use the appropriate tool when making observations and collecting data.
  • 3.2.3.1.1 - Explain the relationship between the pitch of a sound, the rate of vibration of the source, and factors that affect pitch. For example: Changing the length of a string that is plucked changes the pitch.
    • I can explain the factors that affect pitch and rate of vibrations.
    • I can create an instrument using the factors of pitch and vibrations.
  • 3.2.3.1.2 - Explain how shadows form and can change in various ways.
    • I can explain how shadows form and change.
    • I can compare the relationship between shadows and light.
  • 3.2.3.1.3 - Describe how light travels in a straight line until it is absorbed, redirected, reflected or allowed to pass through an object. For example: Use a flashlight, mirrors and water to demonstrate reflection and bending of light.
    • I can demonstrate how light travels and is absorbed.
  • 3.3.3.1.1 - Observe and describe the daily and seasonal changes in the position of the sun and compare observations.
    • I can observe and compare the daily changes in the position of the sun and moon.
    • I can connect the daily position of the sun and explain how it changes with the seasons.
  • 3.3.3.1.2 - Recognize the pattern of apparent changes in the moon's shape and position.
    • I can analyze the pattern of the moon’s shape and position.
  • 3.3.3.2.1 - Demonstrate how a large light source at a great distance looks like a small light that is much closer. For example: Car headlights at a distance look small compared to when they are close.
    • I can explain that the sun is much larger than it appears from earth.
  • 3.3.3.2.2 - Recognize that the Earth is one of several planets that orbit the sun, and that the moon orbits the Earth.
    • I can explain orbital patterns of the planets, sun and moon.
  • 3.4.1.1.1 - Compare how the different structures of plants and animals serve various functions of growth, survival and reproduction. For example: Skeletons in animals and stems in plants provide strength and stability.
    • I can analyze the structures that help living things grow, reproduce and survive.
  • 3.4.1.1.2 - Identify common groups of plants and animals using observable physical characteristics, structures and behaviors. For example: Sort animals into groups such as mammals and amphibians based on physical characteristics. Another example: Sort and identify common Minnesota trees based on leaf/needle characteristics.
    • I can identify and compare the characteristics, structures and behaviors of plants and animals.
  • 3.4.3.2.1 - Give examples of likenesses between adults and offspring in plants and animals that can be inherited or acquired. For example: Collect samples or pictures that show similarities between adults and their young offspring.
    • I can identify the similarities between inherited and acquired characteristics.
  • 3.4.3.2.2 - Give examples of differences among individuals that can sometimes give an individual an advantage in survival and reproduction.
    • I can identify characteristics that help animals and plants reproduce and survive.

Fourth Grade

  • 4.1.2.1.1 - Describe the positive and negative impacts that the designed world has on the natural world as more and more engineered products and services are created and used.
    • I can explain how engineered products and services positively and/or negatively impact our natural world. (compare/contrast)
  • 4.1.2.2.1 - Identify and investigate a design solution and describe how it was used to solve an everyday problem. (e.g. Investigate different varieties of construction tools.)
    • I can identify and investigate how an engineering design solution solves problems.
  • 4.1.2.2.2 - Generate ideas and possible constraints for solving a problem through engineering design.
    • I can generate ideas and possible constraints for a problem using the engineering design process. (teacher training NEEDED) 
  • 4.1.2.2.3 - Test and evaluate solutions, considering advantages and disadvantages of the engineering solution, and communicate the results effectively.
    • I can test, evaluate solutions, and communicate the results of the engineering design process. 
  • 4.1.3.3.1 - Describe a situation in which one invention led to other inventions.
    • I can describe how one invention leads to new inventions. (sequence)
  • 4.2.1.1.1 - Measure temperature, volume, weight and length using appropriate tools and units.
    • I can accurately measure using the metric system
  • 4.2.1.2.1 - Distinguish between solids, liquids and gases in terms of shape and volume. (e.g. Water changes shape depending on the shape of its container.)
    • I can describe and compare the different states of matter.
  • 4.2.1.2.2 - Describe how the states of matter change as a result of heating and cooling.
    • I can explain how states of matter change.
  • 4.2.3.1.1 - Describe the transfer of heat energy when a warm and a cool object are touching or placed near each other.
    • I can explain that heat is transferred, not cold.
  • 4.2.3.1.2 - Describe how magnets can repel or attract each other and how they attract certain metal objects.
    • I can describe the properties of magnets.
  • 4.2.3.1.3 - Compare materials that are conductors and insulators of heat and/or electricity. (e.g. Glass conducts heat well, but is a poor conductor of electricity.)
    • I can compare materials that are conductors and/or insulators of heat or electricity.
  • 4.2.3.2.1 - Identify several ways to generate heat energy. (e.g. Burning a substance, rubbing hands together, or electricity flowing through wires.)
    • I can identify ways to generate heat energy.
  • 4.2.3.2.2 - Construct a simple electrical circuit using wires, batteries and light bulbs.
    • I can create a simple electrical circuit.
  • 4.2.3.2.3 - Demonstrate how an electric current can produce a magnetic force. (e.g. Construct an electromagnet to pick up paperclips.)
    • I can construct and explain an electromagnet.
  • 4.3.1.3.1 - Recognize that rocks may be uniform or made of mixtures of different minerals.
    • I can use evidence to recognize rocks and minerals can be a single mineral or a mixture of mineral.
      • Teacher note- Minerals aren’t always rocks...but rocks are always made of minerals.
  • 4.3.1.3.2 - Describe and classify materials based on their physical properties. (e.g. Streak, luster, hardness, reaction to vinegar.)
    • I can use physical properties to classify rocks and minerals.
  • 4.3.2.3.1 - Identify where water collects on Earth, including atmosphere, ground and surface water, and describe how water moves through the Earth system using the processes of evaporation, condensation and precipitation.
    • I can identify how/where water collects and moves through the Earth.
  • 4.3.4.1.1 - Describe how the methods people utilize to obtain and use water in their homes and communities can affect water supply and quality.
    • I can describe how water use affects water supply and quality. (cause/effect)
  • 4.4.4.2.1 - I can identify and explain the body’s defense systems.
  • 4.4.4.2.2 - Give examples of diseases that can be prevented by vaccination.
    • I can list examples of diseases for which vaccines have been created.

Fifth Grade

  • 5.1.1.1.1 - Explain why evidence, clear communication, accurate record keeping, replication by others, and openness to scrutiny are essential parts of doing science.
    • Broken down:
      • I can organize/ summarize my observations.
      • I can openly discuss critiques of my scientific process.
    • Overall:
      • I can analyze scientists’ need for clear communication, which leads to further scientific problems and investigations.
  • 5.1.1.1.2 - Recognize that when scientific investigations are replicated they generally produce the same results, and when results differ significantly, it is important to investigate what may have caused such differences. For example: Measurement errors, equipment failures, or uncontrolled variables.
    • I can identify how variables and the process of a scientific investigation may affect the outcome.
    • I can investigate what might cause differences in results of an investigation. 
  • 5.1.1.1.3 - Understand that different explanations for the same observations usually lead to making more observations and trying to resolve the differences.
    • I can analyze scientists’ need for clear communication, which leads to further scientific problems and investigations.
  • 5.1.1.1.4 - Understand that dif
  • 5.1.1.2.1 - Generate a scientific question and plan an appropriate scientific investigation, such as systematic observations, field studies, open-ended exploration or controlled experiments to answer the question.
    • I can plan and carry out scientific investigations.
  • 5.1.1.2.2 - Identify and collect relevant evidence, make systematic observations and accurate measurements, and identify variables in a scientific investigation.
    • I can identify variables in a scientific process, make observations and collect evidence
  • 5.1.1.2.3 - Conduct or critique an experiment, noting when the experiment might not be fair because some of the things that might change the outcome are not kept the same, or that the experiment isn't repeated enough times to provide valid results.
    • I can critique whether a scientific investigation is a fair test.
    • I can identify how variables and the process of a scientific investigation may affect the outcome.
  • 5.1.3.2.1 - Describe how science and engineering influence and are used by local traditions and beliefs. For example: Sustainable agriculture practices used by many cultures.
    • I can investigate and summarize how local culture affects science and engineering.   
  • 5.1.3.4.1 - Use appropriate tools and techniques in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data. For example: Spring scale, metric measurements, tables, mean/median/range, spreadsheets, and appropriate graphs,
    • I can apply the practices and tools of a scientist to gather, analyze and interpret data.
  • 5.1.3.4.2 - Create and analyze different kinds of maps of the student's community and of Minnesota. For example: Weather maps, city maps, aerial photos, regional maps, or online map resources.
    • I can create and analyze maps of the my community and state.
  • 5.2.2.1.1 - Give examples of simple machines and demonstrate how they change the input and output of forces and motion.
    • I can demonstrate how simple machines change force and an object’s motion.
  • 5.2.2.1.2 - Identify the force that starts something moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. For example: Friction slows down a moving skateboard.
    • I can identify how force affects motion.
  • 5.2.2.1.3 - Demonstrate that a greater force on an object can produce a greater change in motion.
    • I can identify how force affects motion.
    • I can analyze the relationship between force and motion.
  • 5.3.1.2.1 - Explain how, over time, rocks weather and combine with organic matter to form soil.
  •  can analyze changes that take place on Earth to produce soil.
  • 5.3.1.2.2 - Explain how slow processes, such as water erosion, and rapid processes, such as landslides and volcanic eruptions, form features of the Earth's surface.
    • I can investigate and distinguish the different processes that form the Earth’s surface.
  • 5.3.4.1.1 - Identify renewable and non-renewable energy and material resources that are found in Minnesota and describe how they are used. For example: Water, iron ore, granite, sand and gravel, wind, and forests.
    • I can identify uses of Minnesota's renewable and nonrenewable resources.
  • 5.3.4.1.2 - Give examples of how mineral and energy resources are obtained and processed and how that processing modifies their properties to make them more useful. For example: Iron ore, biofuels, or coal.
    • I can explain how natural resources are obtained and processed for use.
  • 5.3.4.1.3 - Compare the impact of individual decisions on natural systems. For example: Choosing paper or plastic bags impacts landfills as well as ocean life cycles.
    • I can evaluate the impact of decisions that affect the environment.
  • 5.4.1.1.1 - Describe how plant and animal structures and their functions provide an advantage for survival in a given natural system. For example: Compare the physical characteristics of plants or animals from widely different environments, such as deserts or wetlands, and explore how each has adapted to its environment.
    • I can identify how plant and animal structures and functions can lead to advantages in survival.
  • 5.4.2.1.1 - Describe a natural system in Minnesota, such as a wetland, prairie, or garden, in terms of the relationships among its living and nonliving parts, as well as inputs and outputs. For example: Design and construct a habitat for a living organism that meets its need for food, air and water.
    • I can determine what living and nonliving environmental factors are needed for a natural system
    • I can compare and contrast the relationship between environmental factors in a given natural system.
    • I can investigate and draw conclusions about a Minnesota natural system through the interactions and relationships between its different parts.
  • 5.4.2.1.2 - Explain what would happen to a system such as a wetland, prairie or garden if one of its parts were changed. For example: Investigate how road salt runoff affects plants, insects and other parts of an ecosystem. Another example: Investigate how an invasive species changes an ecosystem.
    • I can analyze the impact of changes to a natural system.
  • 5.4.4.1.1 - Give examples of beneficial and harmful human interaction with natural systems. For example: Recreation, pollution, wildlife management.
    • I can evaluate human interactions with the natural systems as beneficial or harmful.

Sixth Grade

  • 6.1.2.1.1 - Identify a common engineered system and evaluate its impact on the daily life of humans.  For example: Refrigeration, cell phone, or automobile.
  • 6.1.2.1.2 - Recognize that there is no perfect design and that new technologies have consequences that may increase some risks and decrease others. For example: Seat belts and airbags.
  • 6.1.2.1.3 - Describe the trade-offs in using manufactured products in terms of features, performance, durability and cost.  
  • 6.1.2.1.4 - Explain the importance of learning from past failures, in order to inform future designs of similar products or systems. For example: Space shuttle or bridge design.
  • 6.1.2.2.1 - Apply and document an engineering design process that includes identifying criteria and constraints, making representations, testing and evaluation, and refining the design as needed to construct a product or system to solve a problem. For example: Investigate how energy changes from one form to another by designing and constructing a simple roller coaster for a marble.
  • 6.1.3.1.1 - Describe a system in terms of its subsystems and parts, as well as its inputs, processes and outputs.
  • 6.1.3.1.2 - Distinguish between open and closed systems.  For example: Compare mass before and after a chemical reaction that releases a gas in sealed and open plastic bags.
  • 6.1.3.4.1 - Determine and use appropriate safe procedures, tools, measurements, graphs, and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a physical science context.
  • 6.1.3.4.2 - Demonstrate the conversion of units within the International System of Units (S.I. or metric) and estimate the magnitude of common objects and quantities using metric units.
  • 6.2.1.1.1 - Explain density, dissolving, compression, diffusion and thermal expansion using the particle model of matter.
  • 6.2.1.2.1 - Identify evidence of physical changes, including changing phase or shape, and dissolving in other materials. 
  • 6.2.1.2.2 - Describe how mass is conserved during a physical change in a closed system.  For example: The mass of an ice cube does not change when it melts.
  • 6.2.1.2.3 - Use the relationship between heat and the motion and arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases to explain melting, freezing, condensation and evaporation.
  • 6.2.2.1.1 - Measure and calculate the speed of an object that is traveling in a straight line. 
  • 6.2.2.1.2 - For an object traveling in a straight line, graph the object’s position as a function of time, and its speed as a function of time.  Explain how these graphs describe the object’s motion
  • 6.2.2.2.1 - Recognize that when the forces acting on an object are balanced, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line, and that unbalanced forces cause a change in the speed or direction of the motion of an object.
  • 6.2.2.2.2 - Identify the forces acting on an object and describe how the sum of the forces affects the motion of the object.  For example: Forces acting on a book on a table or a car on the road.
  • 6.2.2.2.3 - Recognize that some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact and others, such as magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act from a distance.
  • 6.2.2.2.4 - Distinguish between mass and weight.
  • 6.2.3.1.1 - Describe properties of waves, including speed, wavelength, frequency and amplitude.
  • 6.2.3.1.2 - Explain how the vibration of particles in air and other materials results in the transfer of energy through sound waves.
  • 6.2.3.1.3 - Use wave properties of light to explain reflection, refraction and the color spectrum.
  • 6.2.3.2.1 - Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy and analyze situations where kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and vice versa.
  • 6.2.3.2.2 - Trace the changes of energy forms, including thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical or others as energy is used in devices.  For example: A bicycle, light bulb or automobile.
  • 6.2.3.2.3 - Describe how heat energy is transferred in conduction, convection and radiation. 

Seventh Grade

  • 7.1.1.1.1 - Understand that prior expectations can create bias when conducting scientific investigations. For example: Students often continue to think that air is not matter, even though they have contrary evidence from investigations.
  • 7.1.1.1.2 - Understand that when similar investigations give different results, the challenge is to judge whether the differences are significant, and if further studies are required.  For example: Use mean and range to analyze the reliability of experimental results
  • 7.1.1.2.1 - Generate and refine a variety of scientific questions and match them with appropriate methods of investigation, such as field studies, controlled experiments, review of existing work, and development of models.
  • 7.1.1.2.2 - Plan and conduct a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis about a relationship between two variables, ensuring that one variable is systematically manipulated, the other is measured and recorded, and any other variables are kept the same (controlled).  For example: The effect of various factors on the production of carbon dioxide by plants.
  • 7.1.1.2.3 - Generate a scientific conclusion from an investigation, clearly distinguishing between results (evidence) and conclusions (explanation).
  • 7.1.1.2.4 - Evaluate explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, and suggesting alternative explanations.
  • 7.1.3.4.1 - Use maps, satellite images and other data sets to describe patterns and make predictions about natural systems in a life science context. For example:  Use online data sets to compare wildlife populations or water quality in regions of Minnesota.
  • 7.1.3.4.2 - Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, measurements, graphs and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a life science context.
  • 7.2.1.1.1 - Recognize that all substances are composed of one or more of approximately one hundred elements and that the periodic table organizes the elements into groups with similar properties.
  • 7.2.1.1.2 - Describe the differences between elements and compounds in terms of atoms and molecules.
  • 7.2.1.1.3 - Recognize that a chemical equation describes a reaction where pure substances change to produce one or more pure substances whose properties are different from the original substance(s).
  • 7.4.1.1.1 - Recognize that all cells do not look alike and that specialized cells in multicellular organisms are organized into tissues and organs that perform specialized functions. For example: Nerve cells and skin cells do not look the same because they are part of different organs and have different functions.
  • 7.4.1.1.2 - Describe how the organs in the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous, skin and urinary systems interact to serve the needs of vertebrate organisms.  
  • 7.4.1.2.1 - Recognize that cells carry out life functions, and that these functions are carried out in a similar way in all organisms, including, animals, plants, fungi, bacteria and protists.
  • 7.4.1.2.2 - Recognize that cells repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair.
  • 7.4.1.2.3 - Use the presence of the cell wall and chloroplasts to distinguish between plant and animal cells.  For example: Compare microscopic views of plant cells and animal cells.
  • 7.4.2.1.1 - Identify a variety of populations and communities in an ecosystem and describe the relationships among the populations and communities in a stable ecosystem.
  • 7.4.2.1.2 - Compare and contrast the roles of organisms within the following relationships: predator/prey, parasite/host, and producer/consumer/decomposer.
  • 7.4.2.1.3 - Explain how the number of populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available as well as abiotic factors such as amount of light and water, temperature range and soil composition.
  • 7.4.2.2.1 - Recognize that producers use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms. 
  • 7.4.2.2.2 - Describe the roles and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in changing energy from one form to another in a food web within an ecosystem.
  • 7.4.2.2.3 - Explain that the total amount of matter in an ecosystem remains the same as it is transferred between organisms and their physical environment, even though its form and location change. For example: Construct a food web to trace the flow of matter in an ecosystem.
  • 7.4.3.1.1 - Recognize that cells contain genes and that each gene carries a single unit of information that either alone, or with other genes, determines the inherited traits of an organism.
  • 7.4.3.1.2 - Recognize that in asexually reproducing organisms all the genes come from a single parent, and that in sexually reproducing organisms about half of the genes come from each parent.
  • 7.4.3.1.3 - Distinguish between characteristics of organisms that are inherited and those acquired through environmental influences.
  • 7.4.3.2.1 - Explain how the fossil record documents the appearance, diversification and extinction of many life forms.
  • 7.4.3.2.2 - Use internal and external anatomical structures to compare and infer relationships between living organisms as well as those in the fossil record.
  • 7.4.3.2.3 - Recognize that variation exists in every population and describe how a variation can help or hinder an organism’s ability to survive.
  • 7.4.3.2.4 - Recognize that extinction is a common event and it can occur when the environment changes and a population's ability to adapt is insufficient to allow its survival.
  • 7.4.4.1.1 - Describe examples where selective breeding has resulted in new varieties of cultivated plants and particular traits in domesticated animals.
  • 7.4.4.1.2 - Describe ways that human activities can change the populations and communities in an ecosystem.
  • 7.4.4.2.1 - Explain how viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites may infect the human body and interfere with normal body functions.
  • 7.4.4.2.2 - Recognize that a microorganism can cause specific diseases and that there are a variety of medicines available that can be used to combat a given microorganism.
  • 7.4.4.2.3 - Recognize that vaccines induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.
  • 7.4.4.2.4 - Recognize that the human immune system protects against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise from within.

Eighth Grade

  • 8.1.1.1.1 - Evaluate the reasoning in arguments in which fact and opinion are intermingled or when conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given. For example: Evaluate the use of pH in advertising products such as body care and gardening.
  • 8.1.1.2.1 - Use logical reasoning and imagination to develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models based on evidence.
  • 8.1.3.2.1 - Describe examples of important contributions to the advancement of science, engineering and technology made by individuals representing different groups and cultures at different times in history.
  • 8.1.3.3.1 - Explain how scientific laws and engineering principles, as well as economic, political, social,and ethical expectations, must be taken into account in designing engineering solutions or conducting scientific investigations.
  • 8.1.3.3.2 - Understand that scientific knowledge is always changing as new technologies and information enhance observations and analysis of data.  For example: Analyze how new telescopes have provided new information about the universe.
  • 8.1.3.3.3 - Provide examples of how advances in technology have impacted how people live, work and interact.
  • 8.1.3.4.1 - Use maps, satellite images and other data sets to describe patterns and make predictions about local and global systems in Earth science contexts.  For example: Use data or satellite images to identify locations of earthquakes and volcanoes, ocean surface temperatures, or weather patterns.
  • 8.1.3.4.2 - Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, measurements, graphs and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in Earth and physical science contexts.
  • 8.2.1.1.1 - Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance and use physical properties including color, solubility, density, melting point and boiling point to separate mixtures and identify pure substances.
  • 8.2.1.2.1 - Identify evidence of chemical changes, including color change, gas evolution, solid formation and temperature change.
  • 8.2.1.2.2- Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in matter.
  • 8.2.1.2.3 - Use the particle model of matter to explain how mass is conserved during physical and chemical changes in a closed system.
  • 8.2.1.2.4 - Recognize that acids are compounds whose properties include a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.
  • 8.2.3.1.1 - Explain how seismic waves transfer energy through the layers of the Earth and across its surface.
  • 8.3.1.1.1 - Recognize that the Earth is composed of layers, and describe the properties of the layers, including the lithosphere, mantle and core.
  • 8.3.1.1.2 - Correlate the distribution of ocean trenches, mid-ocean ridges and mountain ranges  to volcanic and seismic activity.
  • 8.3.1.1.3 - Recognize that major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, result from the slow movement of tectonic plates. 
  • 8.3.1.2.1 - Explain how landforms result from the processes of crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, weathering, erosion and deposition of sediment.
  • 8.3.1.2.2 - Explain the role of weathering, erosion and glacial activity in shaping Minnesota's current landscape.
  • 8.3.1.3.1 - Interpret successive layers of sedimentary rocks and their fossils to infer relative ages of rock sequences, past geologic events, changes in environmental conditions, and the appearance and extinction of life forms.
  • 8.3.1.3.2 - Classify and identify rocks and minerals using characteristics including, but not limited to, density, hardness and streak for minerals; and texture and composition for rocks.
  • 8.3.1.3.3 - Relate rock composition and texture to physical conditions at the time of formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock.
  • 8.3.2.1.1 - Explain how the combination of the Earth's tilted axis and revolution around the sun causes the progression of seasons.
  • 8.3.2.1.2 - Recognize that oceans have a major effect on global climate because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.
  • 8.3.2.1.3 - Explain how heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and hydrosphere producing winds, ocean currents and the water cycle, as well as influencing global climate.
  • 8.3.2.2.1 - Describe how the composition and structure of the Earth's atmosphere affects energy absorption, climate, and the distribution of particulates and gases. For example: Certain gases contribute to the greenhouse effect.
  • 8.3.2.2.2 - Analyze changes in wind direction, temperature, humidity and air pressure and relate them to fronts and pressure systems.
  • 8.3.2.2.3 - Relate global weather patterns to patterns in  regional and local weather.
  • 8.3.2.3.1 - Describe the location, composition and use of major water reservoirs on the Earth, and the transfer of water among them.
  • 8.3.2.3.2 - Describe how the water cycle distributes materials and purifies water.  For example: Dissolved gases can change the chemical composition of substances on Earth. Another example: Waterborne disease.
  • 8.3.3.1.1 - Recognize that the sun is a medium sized star, one of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy, and the closest star to Earth.
  • 8.3.3.1.2 - Describe how gravity and inertia keep most objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion.
  • 8.3.3.1.3 - Recognize that gravitational force exists between any two objects and describe how the masses of the objects and distance between them affect the force.
  • 8.3.3.1.4 - Compare and contrast the sizes, locations, and compositions of the planets and moons in our solar system.
  • 8.3.4.1.1 - Describe how mineral and fossil fuel resources have formed over millions of years and explain why these resources are finite and non-renewable over human time frames.
  • 8.3.4.1.2 - Recognize that land and water use practices affect natural processes and that natural processes interfere and interact with human systems.  For example: Levees change the natural flooding process of a river.   Another example: Agricultural runoff influences natural systems far from the source.

Physical Science

  • 9.1.1.1.1 - Explain the implications of the assumption that the rules of the universe are the same everywhere and these rules can be discovered by careful and systematic investigation.
  • 9.1.1.2.2 - Evaluate the explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the scientifically acceptable evidence, and suggesting alternative scientific explanations.
  • 9.1.1.2.3 - Identify the critical assumptions and logic used in a line of reasoning to judge the validity of a claim.
  • 9.1.1.2.4 - Use primary sources or scientific writings to identify and explain how different types of questions and their associated methodologies are used by scientists for investigations in different disciplines..
  • 9.1.2.1.1 - Understand that engineering designs and products are often continually checked and critiqued for alternatives, risks, costs and benefits, so that subsequent designs are refined and improved.  For example: If the price of an essential raw material changes, the product design may need to be changed.
  • 9.1.2.1.2 - Recognize that risk analysis is used to determine the potential positive and negative consequences of using a new technology or design, including the evaluation of causes and effects of failures.  For example: Risks and benefits associated with using lithium batteries.
  • 9.1.2.1.3 - Explain and give examples of how, in the design of a device, engineers consider how it is to be manufactured, operated, maintained, replaced and disposed of.
  • 9.1.2.2.1 - Identify a problem and the associated constraints on possible design solutions.  For example: Constraints can include time, money, scientific knowledge and available technology.
  • 9.1.2.2.2 - Develop possible solutions to an engineering problem and evaluate them using conceptual, physical and mathematical models to determine the extent to which the solutions meet the design specifications.  For example: Develop a prototype to test the quality, efficiency and productivity of a product.
  • 9.1.3.2.2 - Analyze possible careers in science and engineering in terms of education requirements, working practices and rewards.
  • 9.1.3.3.1 - Describe how values and constraints affect science and engineering. For example: Economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health, safety, and sustainability issues.
  • 9.1.3.3.3 - Describe how scientific investigations and engineering processes require multi-disciplinary contributions and efforts.  For example: Nanotechnology, climate change, agriculture, or biotechnology.
  • 9.1.3.4.1 - Describe how technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, improved mathematics, and new technologies.
  • 9.1.3.4.5 - Demonstrate how unit consistency and dimensional analysis can guide the calculation of quantitative solutions and verification of results.
  • 9.2.1.1.1 - Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
  • 9.2.1.1.3 - Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the relationships among elements in a given column or row.
  • 9.2.1.1.4 - Explain that isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons. For example: Some rock formations and building materials emit radioactive radon gas.  Another example: The predictable rate of decay of radioactive isotopes makes it possible to estimate the age of some materials, and makes them useful in some medical procedures.
  • 9.2.1.2.1 - Describe the role of valence electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.
  • 9.2.1.2.2 - Explain how the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction illustrates the law of conservation of mass.
  • 9.2.1.2.3 - Describe a chemical reaction using words and symbolic equations.   For example: The reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen gas can be written:  2H2 + O2 → 2H2O.
  • 9.2.1.2.4 - Relate exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions to temperature and energy changes.
  • 9.2.2.2.1 - Recognize that inertia is the property of an object that causes it to resist changes in motion.
  • 9.2.2.2.2 - Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
  • 9.2.2.2.3 - Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. 
  • 9.2.2.2.4 - Use Newton’s universal law of gravitation to describe and calculate the attraction between massive objects based on the distance between them.  For example: Calculate the weight of a person on different planets using data of the mass and radius of the planets.
  • 9.2.3.2.1 - Identify the energy forms and explain the transfers of energy involved in the operation of common devices. For example: Light bulbs, electric motors, automobiles or bicycles.
  • 9.2.3.2.2 - Calculate and explain the energy, work and power involved in energy transfers in a mechanical system.  For example: Compare walking and running up or down steps. 
  • 9.2.3.2.3 - Describe wave properties of frequency and amplitude.
  • 9.2.3.2.4 - Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
  • 9.2.3.2.5 - Describe how an electric current produces a magnetic force, and how this interaction is used in motors and electromagnets to produce mechanical energy.
  • 9.2.3.2.7 - Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.  For example: Compare the energy of microwaves and X-rays.
  • 9.2.4.1.2 - Describe the trade-offs involved when technological developments impact the way we use energy, natural resources, or synthetic materials.  For example: Fluorescent light bulbs use less energy than incandescent lights, but contain toxic mercury.
  • 9.3.2.1.1 - Compare and contrast the energy sources of the Earth, including the sun, the decay of radioactive isotopes and gravitational energy.
  • 9.3.2.2.2. - Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today.
  • 9.3.3.3.1 - Explain how evidence, including the Doppler shift of light from distant stars and cosmic background radiation, is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
  • 9.3.3.3.2 - Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.

Life Science - Biology

  • 9.1.1.1.2 - Understand that scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons, including: to discover new aspects of the natural world, to explain observed phenomena, to test the conclusions of prior investigations, or to test the predictions of current theories.
  • 9.1.1.1.6 - Describe how changes in scientific knowledge generally occur in incremental steps that include and build on earlier knowledge.
  • 9.1.1.1.7 - Explain how scientific and technological innovations-as well as new evidence-can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.
  • 9.1.1.2.1 - Formulate a testable hypothesis, design and conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis, analyze the data, consider alternative explanations, and draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation.
  • 9.1.1.2.2 - Evaluate the explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the scientifically acceptable evidence, and suggesting alternative scientific explanations.
  • 9.1.1.2.3 - Identify the critical assumptions and logic used in a line of reasoning to judge the validity of a claim.
  • 9.1.3.1.1 - Describe a system, including specifications of boundaries and subsystems, relationships to other systems, and identification of inputs and expected outputs.  For example: A power plant or ecosystem.
  • 9.1.3.1.2 - Identify properties of a system that are different from those of its parts but appear because of the interaction of those parts.
  • 9.1.3.1.3 - Describe how positive and/or negative feedback occur in systems. For example: The greenhouse effect
  • 9.1.3.2.1 - Provide examples of how diverse cultures, including natives from all of the Americas, have contributed scientific and mathematical ideas and technological inventions. For example: Native American understanding of ecology; Lisa Meitner's contribution to understanding radioactivity; Tesla's ideas and inventions relating to electricity; Watson, Crick and Franklin's discovery of the structure of DNA; or how George Washington Carver's ideas changed land use.
  • 9.1.3.3.2 - Communicate, justify, and defend the procedures and results of a scientific inquiry or engineering design project using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, or written means.
  • 9.1.3.4.2 - Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.  For example: Consideration of chemical and biological hazards in the lab.
  • 9.1.3.4.3 - Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, pictorial, or graphical representation  to communicate scientific ideas, procedures and experimental results.
  • 9.1.3.4.4 - Relate the reliability of data to consistency of results, identify sources of error, and suggest ways to improve the data collection and analysis.  For example: Use statistical analysis or error analysis to make judgments about the validity of results
  • 9.4.1.1.1 - Explain how cell processes are influenced by internal and external factors, such as pH and temperature, and how cells and organisms respond to changes in their environment to maintain homeostasis.
  • 9.4.1.1.2 - Describe how the functions of individual organ systems are integrated to maintain homeostasis in an organism.
  • 9.4.1.2.1 - Recognize that cells are composed primarily of a few elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and describe the basic molecular structures and the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
  • 9.4.1.2.2 - Recognize that the work of the cell is carried out primarily by proteins, most of which are enzymes, and that protein function depends on the amino acid sequence and the shape it takes as a consequence of the interactions between those amino acids.
  • 9.4.1.2.3 - Describe how viruses, prokaryotic cells, and eukaryotic cells differ in relative size, complexity and general structure.
  • 9.4.1.2.4 - Explain the function and importance of cell organelles for prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells as related to the basic cell processes of respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and cell reproduction.
  • 9.4.1.2.5 - Compare and contrast passive transport (including osmosis and facilitated transport) with active transport such as endocytosis and exocytosis.
  • 9.4.1.2.6 - Explain the process of mitosis in the formation of identical new cells and maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
  • 9.4.2.1.1 - Describe factors that affect the carrying capacity of an ecosystem and relate these to population growth.
  • 9.4.2.1.2 - Explain how ecosystems can change as a result of the introduction of one of more new species.  For example: The effect of migration, localized evolution or disease organism.
  • 9.4.2.2.1 - Use words and equations to differentiate between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.
  • 9.4.2.2.2 - Explain how matter and energy is transformed and transferred among organisms in an ecosystem, and how energy is dissipated as heat into the environment.
  • 9.4.3.1.1 - Explain the relationships among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
  • 9.4.3.1.2 - In the context of a monohybrid cross, apply the terms phenotype, genotype, allele, homozygous and heterozygous.
  • 9.4.3.1.3 - Describe the process of DNA replication and the role of DNA and RNA in assembling protein molecules.
  • 9.4.3.2.1 - Use concepts from Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment to explain how sorting and recombination (crossing over) of genes during sexual reproduction (meiosis) increases the occurrence of variation in a species. 
  • 9.4.3.2.2 - Use the processes of mitosis and meiosis to explain the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
  • 9.4.3.2.3 - Explain how mutations like deletions, insertions, rearrangements or substitutions of DNA segments in gametes may have no effect, may harm, or rarely may be beneficial, and can result in genetic variation within a species.
  • 9.4.3.3.1 - Describe how evidence led Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection and common descent to explain evolution. 
  • 9.4.3.3.2 - Use scientific evidence, including the fossil record, homologous structures, and genetic and/or biochemical similarities, to show evolutionary relationships among species.
  • 9.4.3.3.3 - Recognize that artificial selection has led to offspring through successive generations that can be very different in appearance and behavior from their distant ancestors.
  • 9.4.3.3.4 - Explain why genetic variation within a population is essential for evolution to occur.
  • 9.4.3.3.5 - Explain how competition for finite resources and the changing environment promotes natural selection on offspring survival, depending on whether the offspring have characteristics that are advantageous or disadvantageous in the new environment.  
  • 9.4.3.3.6 - Explain how genetic variation between two populations of a given species is due, in part, to different selective pressures acting independently on each population and how, over time, these differences can lead to the development of new species.
  • 9.4.4.1.1 - Describe the social, economic, and ecological risks and benefits of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine.  For example: Selective breeding, genetic engineering, and antibiotic development and use.
  • 9.4.4.1.2 - Describe the social, economic and ecological risks and benefits of changing a natural ecosystem as a result of human activity.  For example: Changing the temperature or  composition of water, air or soil; altering the populations and communities, developing artificial ecosystems; or changing the use of land or water.
  • 9.4.4.2.1 - Describe how some diseases can sometimes be predicted by genetic testing and how this affects parental and community decisions.
  • 9.4.4.2.2 - Explain how the body produces antibodies to fight disease and how vaccines assist this process.
  • 9.4.4.2.3 - Describe how the immune system sometimes attacks some of the body’s own cells and how some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances.
  • 9.4.4.2.4 - Explain how environmental factors and personal decisions, such as water quality, air quality and smoking affect personal and community health.
  • 9.4.4.2.5 - Recognize that a gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer, and how exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.

Chemistry

  • 9.1.1.1.1 - Explain the implications of the assumption that the rules of the universe are the same everywhere and these rules can be discovered by careful and systematic investigation.
  • 9.1.1.1.2 - Understand that scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons, including: to discover new aspects of the natural world, to explain observed phenomena, to test the conclusions of prior investigations, or to test the predictions of current theories.
  • 9.1.1.1.3 - Explain how the traditions and norms of science define the bounds of professional scientific practice and reveal instances of scientific error or misconduct.  For example: The use of peer review, publications and presentations.
  • 9.1.1.1.4 - Explain how societal and scientific ethics impact research practices.  For example: Research involving human subjects may be conducted only with the informed consent of the subjects.
  • 9.1.1.1.6 - Describe how changes in scientific knowledge generally occur in incremental steps that include and build on earlier knowledge.
  • 9.1.1.1.7 - Explain how scientific and technological innovations-as well as new evidence-can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: atomic theory,
  • 9.1.1.2.1 - Formulate a testable hypothesis, design and conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis, analyze the data, consider alternative explanations, and draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation.
  • 9.1.1.2.2 - Evaluate the explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the scientifically acceptable evidence, and suggesting alternative scientific explanations.
  • 9.1.1.2.3 - Identify the critical assumptions and logic used in a line of reasoning to judge the validity of a claim.
  • 9C.1.3.3.1 - Explain the political, societal, economic and environmental impact of chemical products and technologies. For example: Pollution effects, atmospheric changes, petroleum products, material use or waste disposal.
  • 9C.1.3.4.1 - Use significant figures and an understanding of accuracy and precision in scientific measurements to determine and express the uncertainty of a result.
  • 9C.2.1.1.1 - Explain the relationship of an element’s position on the periodic table to its atomic number and electron configuration.
  • 9C.2.1.1.2 - Identify and compare trends on the periodic table, including reactivity and relative sizes of atoms and ions; use the trends to explain the properties of subgroups, including metals, non-metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth
  • 9C.2.1.2.1 - Explain how elements combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
  • 9C.2.1.2.2 - Compare and contrast the structure, properties and uses of organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, sugars, fats and proteins.
  • 9C.2.1.2.3 - Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that ………
  • 9C.2.1.2.4 - Determine the molar mass of a compound from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses; convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and
  • 9C.2.1.2.5 - Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.
  • 9C.2.1.2.6 - Describe the dynamic process by which solutes dissolve in solvents, and calculate concentrations, including percent concentration, molarity and parts per million.
  • 9C.2.1.2.7 - Explain the role of solubility of solids, liquids and gases in natural and designed systems. For example: The presence of heavy metals in water and the atmosphere. Another example: Development and use of alloys.
  • 9C.2.1.3.1 - Classify chemical reactions as double replacement, single replacement, synthesis, decomposition or combustion.
  • 9C.2.1.3.2 - Use solubility and activity of ions to determine whether a double replacement or single replacement reaction will occur.
  • 9C.2.1.3.3 - Relate the properties of acids and bases to the ions they contain and predict the products of an acid-base reaction.
  • 9C.2.1.3.4 - Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition.
  • 9C.2.1.3.5 - Use the law of conservation of mass to describe and calculate relationships in a chemical reaction, including molarity, mole/mass relationships, mass/volume relations, limiting reactants and percent yield.
  • 9C.2.1.3.6 - Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature, pressure, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area and catalyst.
  • 9C.2.1.3.7 - Recognize that some chemical reactions are reversible and that not all chemical reactions go to completion.
  • 9C.2.1.4.1 - Use kinetic molecular theory to explain how changes in energy content affect the state of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
  • 9C.2.1.4.2 - Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the behavior of gases and the relationship among temperature, pressure, volume and the number of particles.

Physics

  • 9P.1.3.3.1 - Describe changes in society that have resulted from significant discoveries and advances in technology in physics.  For example: Transistors, generators, radio/television, or microwave ovens.
  • 9P.2.2.1.1 - Use vectors and free-body diagrams to describe force, position, velocity and acceleration of objects in two-dimensional space. 
  • 9P.2.2.1.2 - Apply Newton’s three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
  • 9P.2.2.1.3 - Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
  • 9P.2.2.2.1 - Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces.
  • 9P.2.2.2.2 - Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.  For example: Objects in orbit.
  • 9P.2.2.2.3 - Use conservation of momentum and conservation of energy to analyze an elastic collision of two solid objects in one-dimensional motion.
  • 9P.2.3.1.1 - Analyze the frequency, period and amplitude of an oscillatory system.  For example: An ideal pendulum, a vibrating string, or a vibrating spring-and-mass system.
  • 9P.2.3.1.2 - Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and/or longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
  • 9P.2.3.1.3 - Explain how interference, resonance, refraction and reflection affect sound waves.
  • 9P.2.3.1.4 - Describe the Doppler effect changes that occur in an observed sound as a result of the motion of a source of the sound relative to a receiver.
  • 9P.2.3.2.1 - Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electric field, and how that forms the basis for electric circuits.
  • 9P.2.3.2.2 - Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.  For example:  Determine the voltage between two points in a series circuit with two resistors.
  • 9P.2.3.2.3 - Describe how moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces.
  • 9P.2.3.2.4 - Use the interplay of electric and magnetic forces to explain how motors, generators, and transformers work.
  • 9P.2.3.3.2 - Explain and calculate how the speed of light and its wavelength change when the medium changes.
  • 9P.2.3.3.3 - Explain the refraction and/or total internal reflection of light in transparent media, such as lenses and optical fibers.
  • 9P.2.3.3.4 - Use properties of light, including reflection, refraction, interference, Doppler effect and the photoelectric effect, to explain phenomena and describe applications.
  • 9P.2.3.3.5 - Compare the wave model and particle model in explaining properties of light.
  • 9P.2.3.3.6 - Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of waves in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
  • 9P.2.3.4.1 - Describe and calculate the quantity of heat transferred between solids and/or liquids, using specific heat, mass and change in temperature.