Language Arts

Students learn to think critically and communicate through listening, speaking, reading, writing and thinking.

We believe each student will read thoughtfully and write to communicate with others. Reading and writing learning involves students developing foundational skills and proficiency in applying comprehension skills and strategies. Students learn through engagement in high quality literature and informational texts and collaborating and conversing with each other to share ideas and gain multiple perspectives. Students at all grade levels utilize the writing process to compose narrative, informative, and opinion texts. Close attention is paid to students’ thinking, including understandings and mistakes, in order to provide an appropriate level of feedback and support.

Read the K-6 Reading Framework
Read the 7-12 Reading Framework

Local Literacy Plan

The purpose of this literacy plan is to ensure that all students will achieve grade-level proficiency and read well by the end of Grade 3, in accordance with Minnesota Statute 120B.12 – Read Well By Third Grade.

View the 2018 Spring Lake Park Schools Local Literacy Plan

Grade-Level Language Arts Learning

Enduring Understandings

 En

In Spring Lake Park Schools, enduring understandings are...

Statements that clearly articulate the big ideas that promote long term understanding of the discipline or subject area that have lasting value beyond the classroom. These are the important understandings that we want students to retain after they may have forgotten the details (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).

K-12 Language Arts enduring understandings

Literature

  •  
  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
  • Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
  • Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
  • Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
  • Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
  • Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
  • Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
  • Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
  • Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
  •  

Informational

  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text
  • Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
  • Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
  • Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone
  • Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
  • Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
  • Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
  • Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
  • Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

Foundational Skills

  • These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, fluency, and other basic conventions of the English writing system.
  • These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the  Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will.

Writing

  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection organization, and analysis of content.
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media

  • Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
  • Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
  • Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated of appropriate.
  • Critically analyze information found in electronic, print, and mass media and use a variety of these sources.
  • Communicate using traditional or digital multimedia formats and digital writing and publishing for a specific purpose.

Language

  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

Essential Questions

 

 

In Spring Lake Park Schools, essential questions...

Focus our attention on what is important. They foster inquiry, understanding, and transfer of learning. They occur naturally and should be asked over and over (Brown, 2004; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).

K-12 Language Arts essential questions include:

  • What are the dangers of personal and societal illiteracy? 
  • What is the difference between informal, conversational or non-standard English, and formal, Edited Standard English?
  • How should I organize my thoughts and ideas so people understand what I am saying? 
  • How should I adjust my writing or speaking to communicate effectively with different audiences?
  • What techniques or strategies do writers or speakers use to achieve their goals?
  • How should I evaluate the quality of another’s writing?
  • What strategies should I use to process what I read or hear?
  • How might the biographical or historical context in which something was written or said affect my interpretation?
  • What is the value of considering multiple perspectives?
  • How should I find, use, and share credible information?

 

K-12 Learning Targets

 

In Spring Lake Park Schools, learning targets...

Specify, in measurable terms, what all students should know and be able to do to achieve desired understandings and answer essential questions (Brown, 2004). These will be identified for each subject within each grade level.

 

Grade-specific Language Arts learning targets

Kindergarten

Literature
  • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (0.1.1.1)
  • With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. (0.1.2.2)
    • Retell consists of main, relevant details from the beginning, middle, and end of the text
  • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. (0.1.3.3)
  • Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (0.1.4.4)
    • Including:
      • Drawing attention to interesting and specific words that add to the text
      • Using context clues from the pictures or the text to help identify meaning of unknown words
  • Recognize common types of texts (e.g., non-fiction, fiction) (0.1.5.5 )
  • Locate the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. (0.1.6.6)
  • Describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). (0.1.7.7)
  • Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. (0.1.9.9)
  • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding, including the appropriate selection of texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. (0.1.10.10)
Informational
  • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (0.2.1.1)
  • With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (0.2.2.2)
  • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (0.2.3.3)
  • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. (0.2.4.4)
  • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. (0.2.5.5)
  • Locate the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. (0.2.6.6)
  • Describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts). (0.2.7.7)
  • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (0.2.8.8)
  • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (0.2.9.9)
  • Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding, including the appropriate selection of texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. (0.2.10.10)
Foundational Skills
  • Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (0.3.0.1)
  • Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). (0.3.0.2)
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (0.3.0.3)
  • Read emergent-reader text With purpose and understanding. (0.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is ...) (0.6.1.1 )
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. (0.6.2.2)
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. (0.6.3.3)
  • With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (0.6.5.5)
  • With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (0.6.6.6)
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (0.6.7.7)
  • With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (0.6.8.8)
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision)and shorter time frames (single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (0.6.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (0.8.1.1 )
  • Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media (e.g., poems, rhymes, songs) by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. (0.8.2.2)
  • Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (0.8.3.3)
  • Orally describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. (0.8.4.4)
  • Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail. (0.8.5.5)
  • Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. (0.8.6.6)
  • Distinguish among different types of print, digital and multimodal media.  For example: (0.8.7.7)
    • Recognize common signs and logos
    • Identify commercials or advertisements.
  • With prompting and support, create an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to share lived or imagined experiences, to present information, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (0.8.8.8)
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (0.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (0.10.2.2)
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. (0.10.4.4)
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
    • Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
  • With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (0.10.5 5)
    • Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    • Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
    • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps). Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).

First Grade

Literature
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (1.1.1.1)
  • Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message (1.1.2.2)
    • Retell consists of main, relevant details from the beginning, middle, and end of the text
    • Author’s message should be taught and used in addition to central message
  • Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details (1.1.3.3)
  • Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses by analyzing the feeling words. (1.1.4.4)
  • Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types. (1.1.5.5)
    • Including defining the characteristics of:
      • Poem
      • Fairy Tale
      • Fable
      • Folk Tale
  • Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. (1.1.6.6)
  • Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events. (1.1.7.7)
  • Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. (1.1.9.9)
  • Read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1 as well as select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. (1.1.10.10)
Informational
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (1.2.1.1)
  • Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (1.2.2.2)
  • Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (1.2.3.3)
  • Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. (1.2.4.4)
  • Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. (1.2.5.5)
  • Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text. (1.2.6.6)
  • Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. (1.2.7.7)
  • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. (1.2.8.8)
  • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). (1.2.9.9)
  • Read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1, as well as select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.  (1.2.10.10)
Foundational Skills
  • Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. (1.3.0.1)
  • Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
  • Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).  (1.3.0.2)
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (1.3.0.3)
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (1.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. (1.6.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. (1.6.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use time order words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure. (1.6.3.3)
  • With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (1.6.5.5)
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (1.6.6.6)
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1.6.7.7)
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (1.6.8.8)
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (1.6.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (1.8.1.1)
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media (e.g., stories, poems, rhymes, songs). (1.8.2.2)
  • Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood. (1.8.3.3)
  • Describe (via speaking) people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. (1.8.4.4)
  • Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (1.8.5.5)
  • Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation, and respond to stories, poems, rhymes and songs with expression. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) (1.8.6.6)
  • Make informed judgments about messages promoted in the mass media (e.g., film, television, radio, magazines, advertisements, newspapers). (1.8.7.7)
    • Distinguish among and understand purposes of different types of print, digital, and multimodal media.
    • Demonstrate understanding of media by asking and answering appropriate questions about what is read, heard or viewed.
  • Summarize ideas from media in own words. Create and share an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to share lived or imagined experiences, to present information, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (1.8.8.8)
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (1.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (1.10.2.2)
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (1.10.3.3)
    • Compare formal and informal uses of English.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (1.10.4.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word. Ex. Un-, re-, ful-, -ly, -less
    • Identify frequently occurring base words and root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
  • With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (1.10.5.5)
    • Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    • Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because). (1.10.6.6)

Second Grade

Literature
  • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2.1.1.1)
  • Retell stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. (2.1.2.2)
    • Retell is a summary that consists of relevant details from the beginning, middle, and end of the text that support the main idea.
    • Author’s message and theme, are interchangeable with central message and lesson and moral (all terms should be taught and used)
  • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. (2.1.3.3)
  • Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. (2.1.4.4)
  • Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action. (2.1.5.5)
  • Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. (2.1.6.6)
  • Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. (2.1.7.7)
  • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures, including those by or about Minnesota American Indians. (2.1.9.9)
  • Select, read and comprehend literature including stories and poetry for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed. (2.1.10.10)
Informational
  • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2.2.1.1)
  • Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. (2.2.2.2)
  • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2.2.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. (2.2.4.4)
  • Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. (2.2.5.5)
  • Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe. (2.2.6.6)
  • Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. (2.2.7.7)
  • Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (2.2.8.8)
  • Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. (2.2.9.9)
  • Select, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range for personal interest, enjoyment, and academic tasks. (2.2.10.10)
Foundational Skills
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (2.3.0.3)
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (2.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Write opinion pieces (2.6.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts (2.6.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts (2.6.3.3)
  • With guidance and support from adults, and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. (2.6.5.5)
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2.6.6.6)
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2.6.7.7)
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2.6.8.8)
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single
  • sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (2.6.10.10)
    •  Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (2.8.1.1)
  • Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (2.8.2.2)
  • Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issues. (2.8.3.3)
  • Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, and speak audibly in coherent sentences. (2.8.4.4)
  • Add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (2.8.5.5)
  • Produce complete sentences (while speaking) when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1and 3 for specific expectations.) (2.8.6.6 )
  • Make informed judgments about messages promoted in the mass media (e.g., film, television, radio, magazines, advertisements, newspapers). (2.8.7.7)
    • Locate and use information in print, non-print, and digital resources, and identify reasons for choosing information used.
    • Check for accuracy in pictures and images.
    • Recognize safe practices in personal media communications.
  • With prompting and support,
  • create an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to create or integrate knowledge, to share experiences or information, to persuade, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (  2.8.8.8 )
    • With prompting and support, critique each found image under consideration for use in a multimedia project for its appropriateness to purpose, its effectiveness in conveying the message, and its effect on the intended audience and justify its use in the project.
    • Share the work with an audience.
Language 
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.  (2.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions   of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (2.10.2.2)
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (2.10.3.3)
    • Compare formal and informal uses of English.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. (2.10.4.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., un-, re-, dis-, ful-, -ly, -s, -ies, -es, -y, -ness, -tion, -ture)
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
    • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
    • Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (2.10.5.5)
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
  • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes m happy). (2.10.6.6)

Third Grade

Literature
  • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3.1.1.1)
  • Retell stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral in a text and explain how it is conveyed through key details.  (3.1.2.2)
    • Retell is a summary that consists of relevant details from the beginning, middle, and end of the text that support the main idea.
    • Author’s message and theme, are interchangeable with central message and lesson and moral (all terms should be taught and used)
  • Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. (3.1.3.3 )
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language, including figurative language such as similes. (3.1.4.4)
  • Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. (3.1.5.5)
  • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. (3.1.5.6)
  • Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). (3.1.7.7 )
  • Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series). (3.1.9.9)
  • Read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of grades 2–3 text complexity band (independently and proficiently.  (3.1.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Informational
  • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3.2.1.1)
  • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (3.2.2.2 )
  • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3.2.3.3)
  • Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. (3.2.5.5)
  • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. (3.2.6.6)
  • Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (3.2.7.7)
  • Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (3.2.8.8)
  • Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. (3.2.9.9)
  • Read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band, independently and proficiently. (3.2.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Foundational Skills
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (3.3.0.3)
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (3.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. (3.6.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (3.6.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (3.6.3.3)
  • With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade specific expectations for writing types ar defined in standards 1–3 above.) (3.6.4.4)
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 3) (3.6.5.5)
  • With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (3.6.6.6)
  • Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (3.6.7.7)
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provide categories. (3.6.8.8)
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a
  • single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (3.6.10.10)
    •  Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (3.8.1.1 )
  • Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and
  • formats. (3.8.2.2)
  • Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (3.8.3.3)
  • Report on a topic or text and avoid plagiarism by identifying sources, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (3.8.4.4)
  • Add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. (3.8.5.5 )
  • Speak in complete sentences When appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3) (3.8.6.6)
  • Make informed judgments about messages promoted in the mass media (e.g., film, television, radio, magazines, advertisements, newspapers). (3.8.7.7)
    • Locate and use information in print, non-print, and digital resources, and identify reasons for choosing information used.
    • Check for accuracy in pictures and images.
    • Recognize safe practices in personal media communications.
  • With prompting and support, create an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to create or integrate knowledge, to share experiences or information, to persuade, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (3.8.8.8)
    • With prompting and support, critique each found image under consideration for use in a multimedia project for its appropriateness to purpose, its effectiveness in conveying the message, and its effect on the intended audience and justify its use in the project.
    • Share the work with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (Clarify/define) (3.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (3.10.2.2)
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (3.10.3.3)
    • Choose words and phrases for effect.*
    • Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (3.10.4.4)
    • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g.,  un-, dis-, non-, im-, in-, re-, pre-, uni-, bi-, tri-, quad-, mono-, semi-, -ful, -less, -ly, -ness, -able, -ship, -ment, -tion.
    • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
    • Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (3.10.5.5)
    • Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
    • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard)
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). (3.10.6.6)

Fourth Grade

Literature
  • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4.1.1.1)
    • Making inferences
  • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. (4.1.2.2)
    • Author’s message and theme, are interchangeable with central message and lesson and moral (all terms should be taught and used).
    • Summarize and paraphrase are used interchangeably
  • Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).  (4.1.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). (4.1.4.4)
  • Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g. verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. (4.1.5.5)
  • Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. (4.1.6.6)
    • Point of View
  • Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. (4.1.7.7)

  • Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures, including American Indian. (4.1.9.9)
Informational
  • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4.2.1.1)
    • Making inferences
  • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. (4.2.2.2)
  • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.  (4.2.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject are. (4.2.4.4)
  • Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/ effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. (4.2.5.5)
  • Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4.2.7.7)
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. (4.2.8.8)
  • Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4.2.9.9)

Foundational Skills

  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (4.3.0.3)
    • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology(e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (4.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (4.6.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (4.6.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (4.6.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.  (4.6.4.4)
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, and editing. (4.6.5.5)
  • With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. (4.6.6.6)
  • Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (4.6.7.7)
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4.6.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4.6.9.9)
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g. a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (4.8.1.1)
  • Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (4.8.2.2)
  • Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. (4.8.3.3)
  • Report on a topic or text and avoid plagiarism by identifying sources, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. (4.8.4.4)
  • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.  (4.8.6.6)
  • Distinguish among, understand, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (4.8.7.7)
    • Make informed judgments about messages promoted in the mass media (e.g., film, television, radio, magazines, advertisements, newspapers).
    • Locate and use information in print, non-print, and digital resources using a variety of strategies.
    • Check for accuracy of information between two different sources.
    • Recognize safe practices in social and personal media communications.
  • Create an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to create or integrate knowledge, to share experiences or information, to persuade, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (4.8.8.8)
    • Evaluate the Fair Use of each visual element or piece of music used in a media work and create a list documenting the source for each found image or piece of music.
    • Publish the work and share it with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (4.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (4.10.2.2)
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (4.10.3.3)
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (4.10.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (4.10.5.5)
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). (4.10.6.6)

Fifth Grade

Literature
  • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (5.1.1.1)
  • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. (5.1.2.2)
    • Author’s message and theme, are interchangeable with central message and lesson and moral (all terms should be taught and used)
    • Summarize and paraphrase are used interchangeably
  • Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (5.1.4.4)
  • Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. (5.1.5.5)
  • Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described. (5.1.6.6)
  • Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). (5.1.7.7)
  • Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. (5.1.9.9)
Informational
  • Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (5.2.1.1)
  • Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. (5.2.2.2)
  • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (5.2.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. (5.2.4.4)
  • Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (5.2.5.5)
  • Analyze multiple accounts by various cultures of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (5.2.6.6)
  • Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.  (5.2.7.7)
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).  (5.2.8.8)
  • Integrate information from several texts on same the topic in order to write/speak about the subject knowledgeably. (5.2.9.9)
Foundational Skills
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (5.3.0.3)
    • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (5.3.0.4)
Writing
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (5.6.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.( 5.6.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (5.6.3.3) 
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.  (5.6.4.4)
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (5.6.5.5)
  • With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of 2 pages in a single sitting. (5.6.6.6)
  • Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (5.6.7.7)
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (5.6.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (5.6.9.9)
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
    • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”)
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (5.8.1.1)
  • Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (5.8.2.2)
  • Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence distinguishing between a speaker’s opinions and verifiable facts. (5.8.3.3)
  • Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; avoid plagiarism by identifying sources; speak clearly at an understandable pace. (5.8.4.4)
  • Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. (5.8.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (5.8.6.6)
  • Distinguish among, understand, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (5.8.7.7)
    • Make informed judgments about messages promoted in the mass media (e.g., film, television, radio, magazines, advertisements, newspapers).
    • Locate and use information in print, non-print, and digital resources using a variety of strategies.
    • Evaluate the accuracy and credibility of information found in digital sources.
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications.
  • Create an individual or shared multimedia work or digital text for a specific purpose (e.g., to create or integrate knowledge, to share experiences or information, to persuade, to entertain, or as artistic expression.) (5.8.8.8)
    • Evaluate the Fair Use of each visual element or piece of music used in a media work and create a list documenting the source for each found image or piece of music.
    • Publish the work and share it with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (5.10.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (5.10.2.2)
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (5.10.3.3)
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (5.10.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
    • Consult reference materials (dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words/phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. (5.10.5.5)

Sixth Grade

Literature
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (6.4.1.1)

  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (6.4.2.2)
  • Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. (6.4.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (6.4.4.4)
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot. (6.4.5.5)
  • Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text, including those by or about Minnesota American Indians. (6.4.6.6)
  • Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. (6.4.7.7)
    • (Not applicable to literature)
  • Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres including those by and about Minnesota American Indians (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics. (6.4.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently and independently with appropriate scaffolding for texts at the high end of the range. (6.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest and academic tasks.
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
Informational
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (6.5.1.1)

  • Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. (6.5.2.2)
  • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). (6.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. (6.4.4.4)
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. (6.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. (6.5.6.6)
  • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (6.5.7.7)
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (6.5.8.8 )
  • Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events, including events related to Minnesota American Indians, with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). (6.5.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (6.5.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (6.7.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (6.7.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (6.7.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (6.7.4.4)
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 6) (6.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. (6.7.6.6)
  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. (6.7.7.7)
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (6.7.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (6.7.9.9)
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres including those by and about Minnesota American Indians [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.(6.7.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (6.9.1.1)
  • Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. (6.9.2.2)
  • Delineate a speaker’s argument, specific claims, and intended audience, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (6.9.3.3)
  • Present claims and findings, respect intellectual properties, sequence ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (6.9.4.4)
  • Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. (6.9.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) (6.9.6.6)
  • Understand, analyze, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (6.9.7.7)
    • Evaluate mass media with regard to quality of production (e.g., film, television, radio, advertisements).
    • Evaluate mass media with regard to accuracy of information, bias, stereotype, purpose, message and target audience (e.g., film, television, radio, video games, print and digital media, advertisements).
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications.
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create an informative multimedia work or a piece of digital communication or contribute to an online collaboration for a specific purpose.  (6.9.8.8)
    • Demonstrate a developmentally appropriate understanding of copyright, attribution, principles of Fair Use, Creative Commons licenses and the effect of genre on conventions of attribution and citation.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (6.11.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.(6.11.2.2)
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.* 
    • Spell correctly.
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (6.11.3.3  )
    • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.*
    • Maintain consistency in style and tone.*
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (6.11.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings to extend word consciousness. (6.11.5.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (6.11.6.6)

Seventh Grade

Literature
  • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (7.4.1.1)
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. (7.4.2.2)
  • Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). (7.4.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. (7.4.4.4)
  • Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning. (7.4.5.5)
  • Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text, including those from diverse cultures. (7.4.6.6)
  • Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).  (7.4.7.7)
    • (Not applicable to literature)
  • Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal, including those in stories, poems, and historical novels of Minnesota American Indians, of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history. (7.4.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently and independently with appropriate scaffolding for texts at the high end of the range. (7.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest and academic tasks. 
    • Read widely to understand multiple  perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
Informational
  • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (7.5.1.1)
  • Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. (7.5.2.2)
  • Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). (7.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. (7.5.4.4)
  • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. (7.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. (7.5.6.6)
  • Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). (7.5.7.7)
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (7.5.8.8)
  • Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic including topics about Minnesota American Indians; shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. (7.5.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (7.5..10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (7.7.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (7.7.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (7.7.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (7.7.4.4)
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 7) (7.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.  (7.7.6.6 )
  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. (7.7.7.7
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (7.7.8.8 )
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (7.7.9.9)
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal, including those in stories, poems, and historical novels of Minnesota American Indians, of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (7.7.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (7.9.1.1)
  • Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. (7.9.2.2)
  • Delineate a speaker’s argument, specific claims, and intended audience, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (7.9.3.3)
  • Present claims and findings, respect intellectual properties, emphasize salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (7.9.4.4)
  • Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. (7.9.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) (7.9.6.6)
  • Understand, analyze, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (7.9.7.7)
    • Evaluate mass media with regard to quality of production, accuracy of information, bias, stereotype, purpose, message and target audience (e.g., film, television, radio, video games, and advertisements).
    • Analyze the messages and points of view employed in different media (e.g., advertising, news programs, websites, video games, blogs, documentaries).
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications.
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create an artistic or entertaining multimedia work or a piece of digital communication or contribute to an online collaboration for a specific purpose.  (7.9.8.8)
    • Demonstrate a developmentally appropriate understanding of copyright, attribution, principles of Fair Use, Creative Commons licenses and the effect of genre on conventions of attribution and citation.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (7.11.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (7.11.2.2)
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • Spell correctly.
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (7.11.3.3)
    • Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (7.11.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings to extend word consciousness. (7.11.5.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
    • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of   words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (7.11.6.6)

Eighth Grade

Literature
  • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (8.4.1.1)
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians, and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. (8.4.2.2)
  • Including: Representation of cultural experience of diverse cultures, groups, or communities within the United States and around the world
  • Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. (8.4.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (8.4.4.4)
  • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. (8.4.5.5)
  • Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. (8.4.6.6)
  • Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. (8.4.7.7)
  • Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, including stories, poems, and historical novels of Minnesota American Indians, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new. (8.4.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently and independently with appropriate scaffolding for texts at the high end of the range. (8.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest and academic tasks.
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
Informational
  • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (8.5.1.1)
  • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. (8.5.2.2)
    • Including: focus on the cultural experience of diverse cultures, groups, or communities within the United States and around the world
  • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (8.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. (8.5.4.4)
  • Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. (8.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.  (8.5.6.6)
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. (8.5.7.7)
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (8.5.8.8)
  • Analyze a case in which two or more texts, including one text by or about Minnesota American Indians or other diverse cultures, provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. (8.5.9.9)
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (8.5.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (8.7.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (8.7.2.2)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. (8.7.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (8.7.4.4)
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8.) (8.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (8.7.6.6)
  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (8.7.7.7)
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (8.7.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (8.7.9.9)
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, including stories, poems, and historical novels of Minnesota American Indians, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (8.7.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (8.9.1.1)
  • Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. (8.9.2.2)
  • Delineate and respond to a speaker’s argument, specific claim, and intended audience, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (8.9.3.3)
  • Present claims and findings, respect intellectual properties emphasize salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (8.9.4.4)
  • Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (8.9.65.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3) (8.9.6.6)
  • Understand, analyze, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (8.9.7.7)
    • Evaluate mass media with regard to quality of production, accuracy of information, bias, stereotype, purpose, message and target audience (e.g., film, television, radio, video games, advertisements).
    • Critically analyze the messages and points of view employed in different media (e.g., advertising, news programs, websites, video games, blogs, documentaries).
    • Analyze design elements of various kinds of media productions to observe that media messages are constructed for a specific purpose.
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications.
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create a persuasive multimedia work or a piece of digital communication or contribute to an online collaboration for a specific purpose. (8.9.8.8)
    • Demonstrate a developmentally appropriate understanding of copyright, attribution, principles of Fair Use, Creative Commons licenses and the effect of genre on conventions of attribution and citation.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (8.11.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (8.11.2.2)
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • Spell correctly.
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (8.11.3.3)
    • Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (8.11.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings to extend word consciousness. (8.11.5.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
    • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
    • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

Ninth Grade

Literature Reading
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (9.4.1.1)
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (9.4.2.2)
  • Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. (9.4.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). (9.4.4.4)
  • Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. (9.4.5.5)
  • Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature. (9.4.6.6)
  • Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). (9.4.7.7)
  • Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare or how a Minnesota American Indian author uses oral tradition to create works of literature). (9.4.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (9.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. 
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
    • By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
      • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. 
      • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
Informational Text Reading
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (9.5.1.1)
  •  Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (9.5.2.2)
  • Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. (9.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (9.5.4.4)
  • Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). (9.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.  (9.5.6.6)
  • Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. (9.5.7.7)
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. (9.5.8.8)
  • Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” and other documents such as those written by Sojourner Truth, Chief Seattle, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), including how they address related themes and concepts. (9.5.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (9.5.10.10)
    • By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (9.7.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (9.7.2.2)
  • Write narratives and/or other creative texts develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.  (9.7.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (9.7.4.4)
  • Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10) (9.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (9.7.6.6)
  • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (9.7.7.7)
  • Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and/or digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (9.7.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (9.7.9.9)
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. (9.7.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians,  building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (9.9.1.1)
  • Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.  (9.9.2.2)
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. (9.9.3.3)
  • While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate). (9.9.4.4)
  • Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (9.9.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3) (9.9.6.6)
    • Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others.
  • Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (9.9.7.7)
    • Evaluate the content and effect of persuasive techniques used in different mass media.
    • Synthesize information and recognize categories, trends, and themes across multiple sources.
    • Demonstrate an understanding of ethics in mass communication and describe the characteristics of ethical and unethical behavior.
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications, and understand the consequences of personal choices.
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to interpret or respond to a piece of literature, to represent thematic similarities between two literary works, to interact or collaborate globally, to critique a current event or social issue.) (9.9.8.8)
    • Present, transform, or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and of the different types of Creative Commons licenses.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (9.11.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (9.11.2.2)
  • Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (9.11.3.3)
    • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (9.11.4.4)
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (9.11.5.5)
  • Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (9.11.6.6)

10th Grade

 

Literature Reading
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (9.4.1.1)
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (9.4.2.2)
  • Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. (9.4.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). (9.4.4.4)
  • Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. (9.4.5.5)
  • Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature. (9.4.6.6)
  • Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). (9.4.7.7)
  • 9.4.8.8 (Not applicable to literature)
  • Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare or how a Minnesota American Indian author uses oral tradition to create works of literature). (9.4.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (9.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. 
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
  • By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. 
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints. 
Informational Text Reading
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (9.5.1.1)

  • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. (9.5.2.2)

  • Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. (9.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (9.5.4.4)
  • Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). (9.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.  (9.5.6.6)
  • Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. (9.5.7.7)
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. (9.5.8.8)
  • Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” and other documents such as those written by Sojourner Truth, Chief Seattle, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), including how they address related themes and concepts. (9.5.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (9.5.10.10)
    • By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 
      • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (9.7.1.1)
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (9.7.2.2)
  • Write narratives and/or other creative texts develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.  (9.7.3.3)
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (9.7.4.4)
  • Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10) (9.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (9.7.6.6)
  • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (9.7.7.7)
  • Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and/or digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (9.7.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (9.7.9.9)
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. (9.7.10.10)
    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians,  building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (9.9.1.1)
  • Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.  (9.9.2.2)
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. (9.9.3.3)
  • While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate). (9.9.4.4)
  • Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (9.9.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3) (9.9.6.6)
    • Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others.
  • Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (9.9.7.7)
    • Evaluate the content and effect of persuasive techniques used in different mass media.
    • Synthesize information and recognize categories, trends, and themes across multiple sources.
    • Demonstrate an understanding of ethics in mass communication and describe the characteristics of ethical and unethical behavior.
    • Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications, and understand the consequences of personal choices.
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to interpret or respond to a piece of literature, to represent thematic similarities between two literary works, to interact or collaborate globally, to critique a current event or social issue.) (9.9.8.8)
    • Present, transform, or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and of the different types of Creative Commons licenses.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (9.11.1.1)
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (9.11.2.2)
  • Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (9.11.3.3)
    • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (9.11.4.4)
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (9.11.5.5)
  • Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (9.11.6.6)

11th and 12th Grade

Literature Reading

  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. (11.4.1.1)
  • Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text. (11.4.2.2)
  • Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). (11.4.3.3)

  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) (11.4.4.4)

  • Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact. (11.4.5.5)
  • Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony , or understatement). (11.4.6.6)
  • Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.) (11.4.7.7)
  • Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and  early-twentieth- century foundational works of American literature, including American Indian and other diverse cultures’ texts and how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics. (11.4.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. (11.4.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
    • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints.
    • By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
      • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
      • Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints.
Informational Text Reading
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. (11.5.1.1)
  • Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. (11.5.2.2)
  • Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. (11.5.3.3)
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10). (11.5.4.4)
  • Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging . (11.5.5.5)
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text. (11.5.6.6)
  • Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (11.5.7.7)
  • Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses). (11.5.8.8)
  • Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features. (11.5.9.9)
  • By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  • By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. (11.5.10.10)
    • Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Writing
  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (11.7.1.1)
    • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (11.7.2.2)
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so 
that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic)
  • Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well- structured event sequences. (11.7.3.3)
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • Use literary and narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, rhythm, repetition, rhyme, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details, figurative and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • Provide a conclusion (when appropriate to the genre) that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative or creative text.
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) (11.7.4.4)
  • Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12 ) (11.7.5.5)
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. (11.7.6.6)
  • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (11.7.7.7)
  • Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (11.7.8.8)
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (11.7.9.9)
    • Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
    • Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

    • Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. (11.7.10.10)
Listening, Speaking, Viewing, Media
  • Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (11.9.1.1)
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts
and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify , verify , or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  • Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. (11.9.2.2)
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. (11.9.3.3)
  • While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate). (11.9.4.4)
  • Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (11.9.5.5)
  • Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 75 for specific expectations.) (11.9.6.6)
    • Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others.
  • Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media. (11.9.7.7)
  • As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to connect literature to a culture or a literary period, to recast a piece of literature into a different time period or culture, to critique popular culture, to create a parody or satire). (11.9.8.8)
    • Present, transform or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and the different types of Creative Commons licenses.
    • Publish the work and share with an audience.
Language
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (11.11.1.1)
    • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over 
time, and is sometimes contested.
    • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., 
Merriam- Webster’ s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’ s Modern American Usage) as needed.
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (11.11.2.2)
    • Observe hyphenation conventions.
    • Spell correctly.
  • Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
 (11.11.3.3)
    • Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (11.11.4.4)
    • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a 
word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or 
phrase.
    • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different 
meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
    • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, 
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology , or its standard usage.
    • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (11.11.5.5)
    • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze 
their role in the text.
    • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. (11.11.6.6)